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Acts of the Apostles 1:15-26;2 Timothy 2:2;Titus 1:5 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel
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Acts of the Apostles 1:15-26

Douay-RheimsDouay-Rheims Bible — The New Testament was published at Rheims, France (1582), the Old Testament at Douay (1609) by exiled English Catholic scholars. Bishop Challoner updated it extensively mid-18th century. The Douay-Rheims served as the English bible for the Catholic world for centuries. This text set is from an approved 1914 U.S. printing.Clementine Latin VulgateClementine Latin Vulgate Bible — Update to the Latin Vulgate Bible of St. Jerome, a foundational Catholic bible, originally issued under Pope Sixtus V and authoritatively revised by Pope Clement VIII, hence its name. This 1914 printing starts with the original Clementine text and takes into account variations in prior printings as well as correctoria officially issued by the Vatican.Haydock CommentaryHaydock Catholic Bible Commentary — Originally compiled by Catholic priest and biblical scholar Rev. George Leo Haydock (1774-1849); written with the Douay-Rheims Bible in view.Sacred Scripture ShortcutsSacred Scripture Shortcuts — Over 1,600 bible verses that underlie Catholic teachings and practice, especially those that are disputed by non-Catholics or are otherwise controversial.
1 The former treatise I made, O Theophilus, of all things which Jesus began to do and to teach,Primum quidem sermonem feci de omnibus, o Theophile, quæ cœpit Iesus facere, et docereS. Luke, who was the author of this history, alludes, in this verse, to his gospel, which he calls his first discourse. In that he informs us, not only of the actions, but also the doctrines of our Saviour. These words, to do and to teach, are the abridgment of the whole gospel: here he gives us the Acts of the Apostles, that is, an history of their travels and preaching. In the beginning of this work he speaks of all the apostles, and what they did before their dispersion. As soon as he comes to the mention of S. Paul, he takes notice of no one else, but is entirely taken up with the narrative of his actions. He addresses his book to Theophilus, which signifies a friend of God, or one who loves God, as if he intended to dedicate it to all the faithful, who believed in, and loved God. But it is more probable that this was some distinct person, well known to S. Luke, and illustrious for his birth, because he gave him the title of κρατιστε , most excellent. Calmet.
2 Until the day on which, giving commandments by the Holy Ghost to the apostles whom he had chosen, he was taken up.usque in diem, qua præcipiens Apostolis per Spiritum sanctum, quos elegit, assumptus est:Until the day on which, giving commandments by the Holy Ghost to the apostles whom he had chosen, he was taken up. As the Scripture was written without distinction of verses, and without any stops, or commas, which were added afterwards) the construction, and joining of the words in this verse, is ambiguous. The question is, with what part of the verse these words, by the Holy Ghost, are to be joined. The sense might be, 1. that he was taken up by the Holy Ghost: but this is generally rejected. 2. That he gave his commandments by the Holy Ghost to his apostles; that is, says S. Chrys. that he gave them spiritual commands, that came from the Holy Ghost, or from his holy Spirit. 3. The most probable exposition seems to be, that he gave his special commandments to his apostles, or to those whom he chose to be his apostles, by the Holy Ghost, or by his holy and divine spirit. Wi. — The power to preach, to baptize, to remit sins, and generally the whole commission and charge of the government of his Church after him in his name, and with his authority; which government was given them, together with the Holy Ghost, to assist them therein for ever. B.
3 To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion, by many proofs, for forty days appearing to them, and speaking of the kingdom of God.quibus et præbuit seipsum vivum post passionem suam in multis argumentis, per dies quadraginta apparens eis, et loquens de regno Dei.Appearing, &c. Why did he not appear to all, but only to his disciples? Because to many of them, who did not know the mystery, he would have seemed a phantom. For if the disciples themselves were diffident, and terrified, and required to touch him with their hands, how would others have been affected? But we know from their miracles, the truth of the resurrection, which is made evident to all succeeding generations. Perhaps the apostles did not perform miracles. How then was the world converted? This is a fact which cannot be denied, and that it should have been brought about by twelve poor illiterate fishermen, without miracles, would be the greatest of all miracles, far beyond the reach of all human means. S. Chrys. hom. i. c. 1. on Acts. — "And speaking of things pertaining to the kingdom of God," as we read in the Greek, and in the Protestant version, that is, pertaining to the Church, which is the kingdom of God, τα περι της βασιλειας του θεου , which plainly makes for unwritten tradition. Estius.
4 And eating together with them, he commanded them, that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but should wait for the promise of the Father, which you have heard (saith he) by my mouth.Et convescens, præcepit eis ab Ierosolymis ne discederent, sed expectarent promissionem Patris, quam audistis (inquit) per os meum:And eating with them. [1] This is a literal translation from the vulgar Latin. But the Prot. translation from some Greek copies, would have it, And being assembled together, he commanded them, &c. Mr. Bois defends the Latin Vulg. and even by the authority of S. Chrys. who doubtless understood the Greek text, as well as any one, and who takes the Greek word here to signify eating: for he observes that the apostles elsewhere prove Christ's resurrection by his eating and drinking with them. Acts x. 4. S. Jer. also says, the derivation of the Greek word, is from eating salt together. Wi.
5 For John indeed baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost, not many days hence.quia Ioannes quidem baptizavit aqua, vos autem baptizabimini Spiritu sancto non post multos hos dies.Baptized with the Holy Ghost, that is, cleansed, and sanctified by the plentiful graces he shall pour upon you. Wi.
6 They therefore who were come together, asked him, saying: Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?Igitur qui convenerant, interrogabant eum, dicentes: Domine si in tempore hoc restitues regnum Israel?Wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom of Israel? Some of them, as S. Chrys. observes, had still their thoughts upon a temporal kingdom of the Messias. Christ, to divert them from such imaginations, tells them, their business is to be witnesses of his doctrine and miracles, particularly of his resurrection, even unto the utmost bounds of the earth, to all the nations of the world. Wi.
7 But he said to them: It is not for you to know the times or moments, which the Father hath put in his own power:Dixit autem eis: Non est vestrum nosse tempora vel momenta, quæ Pater posuit in sua potestate:
8 But you shall receive the power of the Holy Ghost coming upon you, and you shall be witnesses unto me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and Samaria, and even to the uttermost part of the earth.sed accipietis virtutem supervenientis Spiritus sancti in vos, et eritis mihi testes in Ierusalem, et in omni Iudæa, et Samaria, et usque ad ultimum terræ.
9 And when he had said these things, while they looked on, he was raised up: and a cloud received him out of their sight.Et cum hæc dixisset, videntibus illis, elevatus est: et nubes suscepit eum ab oculis eorum.He was raised up. Raised himself up, and ascended, &c. Wi.
10 And while they were beholding him going up to heaven, behold two men stood by them in white garments.Cumque intuerentur in cælum euntem illum, ecce duo viri astiterunt iuxta illos in vestibus albis,Behold two men, that is, two angels, stood by them in white apparel. Wi.
11 Who also said: Ye men of Galilee, why stand you looking up to heaven? This Jesus who is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come, as you have seen him going into heaven.qui et dixerunt: Viri Galilæi quid statis aspicientes in cælum? hic Iesus, qui assumptus est a vobis in cælum, sic veniet quemadmodum vidistis eum euntem in cælum.So shall he come, as you have seen him going. This word going, says S. Chrys. sufficiently intimates, that he ascended by his own power: for so will he come by his own power to judge the world. Wi. — Jesus Christ shall come on the last day, in the same body, in the same majesty, to judge the living and the dead. This he had likewise promised, in more than one place of the gospel, speaking of the vengeance, which he will exercise on the city of Jerusalem. S. Jerom, S. Hilary, and many other ancients, have believed that the Son of God will appear again on Mount Olivet, and that all people shall be assembled to judgment. S. Jerom. super Joel iii. 2. S. Hilary, super Matt. xxiv. 32. — And that same body, which thus ascended to heaven, and which will thus descend, is given us in the blessed Sacrament. "O miracle! exclaims S. Chrysostom, He that sitteth with his Father above, is at the same time handled by men below. Jesus Christ ascending to heaven, both hath his flesh with him above, and hath left it with us below. Elias being taken up, left his disciple, Eliseus, his mantle and double spirit, but the Son of Man ascending, left his own flesh for us." L. iii. de Sacerd. hom. 2. ad pop. Ant. hom. de divit. et paup. — Sulpicius Severus, and S. Paulinus, assure us, that the marks of the feet of our Saviour were imprinted in the place off which he rose to heaven; and S. Aug. informs us, that many in his time went to Judea, to venerate these sacred marks. Ven. Bede testifies the same in the eighth age. In the time of Constantine the great, the empress Helen built a church on the place. Calmet.
12 Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount that is called Olivet, which is nigh Jerusalem, within a sabbath day's journey.Tunc reversi sunt Ierosolymam a monte, qui vocatur Oliveti, qui est iuxta Ierusalem, sabbati habens iter.
13 And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode Peter and John, James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James of Alpheus, and Simon Zelotes, and Jude the brother of James.Et cum introissent in cœnaculum, ascenderunt ubi manebant Petrus, et Ioannes, Iacobus, et Andreas, Philippus, et Thomas, Bartholomæus, et Matthæus, Iacobus Alphæi, et Simon Zelotes, et Iudas Iacobi.
14 All these were persevering with one mind in prayer with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren.hi omnes erant perseverantes unanimiter in oratione cum mulieribus, et Maria matre Iesu, et fratribus eius.
15 In those days Peter rising up in the midst of the brethren, said: (now the number of persons together was about an hundred and twenty:)In diebus illis exurgens Petrus in medio fratrum dixit (erat autem turba hominum simul, fere centum viginti.)Peter, rising up, &c. Peter, says S. Chrys.[2] on this place, who was prince, or chief of the apostolical college, who had authority over them all, who by his place and dignity, might, without them, have chosen, and appointed a new apostle to succeed Judas, (Christ having said to him, confirm thy brethren, ) &c. yet he consults them. Wi. — Here Peter acts and ordains in virtue of his supremacy, and the other apostles agree to his appointment.
16 Men, brethren, the scripture must needs be fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was the leader of them that apprehended Jesus:Viri fratres, oportet impleri Scripturam, quam prædixit Spiritus sanctus per os David de Iuda, qui fuit dux eorum, qui comprehenderunt Iesum:
17 Who was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry.qui connumeratus erat in nobis, et sortitus est sortem ministerii huius.
18 And he indeed hath possessed a field of the reward of iniquity, and being hanged, burst asunder in the midst: and all his bowels gushed out.Et hic quidem possedit agrum de mercede iniquitatis, et suspensus crepuit medius: et diffusa sunt omnia viscera eius.Possessed a field. Judas is here said to have done, what was done by others, with the thirty pieces of money, the reward of his iniquity. And being hanged, that is, as S. Matt. says, (c. xxvii. 5.) having hanged himself, he burst asunder. The Greek has it, falling headlong, [3] as perhaps he did, by the judgment of God, from the place or tree where he hanged himself. Wi. — Judas did not possess the potter's field, but he furnished the price to buy it, giving back the thirty pieces of silver. Menochius. — We often say in common, that we have done what happens in consequence of any action of ours, though it was not in our first intention. Calmet.
19 And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem: so that the same field was called in their tongue, Haceldama, that is to say, The field of blood.Et notum factum est omnibus habitantibus Ierusalem, ita ut appellaretur ager ille, lingua eorum, Haceldama, hoc est, ager sanguinis.
20 For it is written in the book of Psalms: Let their habitation become desolate, and let there be none to dwell therein. And his bishopric let another take.Scriptum est enim in libro Psalmorum: Fiat commoratio eorum deserta, et non sit qui inhabitet in ea: et episcopatum eius accipiat alter.His bishoprick. The words were prophetically spoken in the Psalms, of the traitor Judas. Wi. — Let their habitation. In some MS. copies, in both Greek and Syriac, we read his. In the Psalms, the text was written against the Jews, the persecutors of Christ in general; but in this place, Peter applies it to Judas in particular. Estius in dif. loca.
21 Wherefore of these men who have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus came in and went out among us,Oportet ergo ex his viris, qui nobiscum sunt congregati in omni tempore, quo intravit et exivit inter nos Dominus Iesus,Came in, and went out among us. That is, conversed with us. Wi.
22 Beginning from the baptism of John, until the day wherein he was taken up from us, one of these must be made a witness with us of his resurrection.incipiens a baptismate Ioannis usque in diem, qua assumptus est a nobis, testem resurrectionis eius nobiscum fieri unum ex istis.
23 And they appointed two, Joseph, called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias.Et statuerunt duos, Ioseph, qui vocabatur Barsabas, qui cognominatus est Iustus: et Mathiam.
24 And praying, they said: Thou, Lord, who knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen,Et orantes dixerunt: Tu Domine, qui corda nosti omnium, ostende, quem elegeris ex his duobus unum
25 To take the place of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas hath by transgression fallen, that he might go to his own place.accipere locum ministerii huius, et apostolatus, de quo prævaricatus est Iudas ut abiret in locum suum.To his own place of perdition, which he brought himself to. Wi.
26 And they gave them lots, and the lot fell upon Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.Et dederunt sortes eis, et cecidit sors super Mathiam, et annumeratus est cum undecim Apostolis.And he gave them lots, which they might lawfully do, when they knew that both of them were fit, and every way qualified for the office. Wi. — Lots. This method of deciding the election of ministers by lots, is one of those extraordinary methods which was inspired by God; but can seldom or ever be imitated. Where both candidates appeared equally worthy, as in the present case, and human judgment cannot determine which is to be preferred, it cannot be said that it was wrong to decide it by lots. Thus were avoided any of the evil consequences which might have happened by one party being preferred before the other. S. Augustin observes, that in a doubtful case, where neither part is bad, to decide by lots is not in itself wrong. Sors enim non aliquid mali est, sed res est in dubitatione humana divinam indicans voluntatem. In Psalm xxx. A.

Footnotes: Acts of the Apostles 1

2 Timothy 2:2

1 Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace which is in Christ Jesus:Tu ergo fili mi confortare in gratia, quæ est in Christo Iesu:The grace which is in Christ Jesus; i.e. which is in thee by Christ Jesus. Wi.
2 And the things which thou hast heard of me by many witnesses, the same commend to faithful men, who shall be fit to teach others quæ audisti a me per multos testes, hæc commenda fidelibus hominibus, qui idonei erant et alios docere.
3 Labour as a good soldier of Christ Jesus.Labora sicut bonus miles Christi Iesu.Labour. [1] The Greek word implies, take pains in suffering; as C. i. 8. — As a good soldier, &c. The apostle bringeth three comparisons: 1. of a soldier; 2. of one that strives and runs for a prize; 3. of a husbandman. Wi.
4 No man, being a soldier to God, entangleth himself with secular businesses; that he may please him to whom he hath engaged himself.Nemo militans Deo implicat se negotiis sæcularibus: ut ei placeat, cui se probavit.No man . . . entangleth himself with worldly concerns: with other affairs of the world: much less must the soldier of Christ, who striveth, [2] (better than fighteth ) which belongs to the first comparison. Wi.
5 For he also that striveth for the mastery, is not crowned, except he strive lawfully.Nam et qui certat in agone, non coronatur nisi legitime certaverit.
6 The husbandman, that laboureth, must first partake of the fruits.Laborantem agricolam oportet primum de fructibus percipere.The husbandman who laboureth [3] must first partake. Both the Latin and Greek texts admit of two interpretations: the sense may either be, that it is fitting the husbandman partake first and before others of the fruits of his labours, or that he must first labour and then partake. Wi.
7 Understand what I say: for the Lord will give thee in all things understanding.Intellige quæ dico: dabit enim tibi Dominus in omnibus intellectum.The Lord will give thee understanding. [4] In some Greek copies, may he give thee. Wi.
8 Be mindful that the Lord Jesus Christ is risen again from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel.Memor esto Dominum IESUM CHRISTUM resurrexisse a mortuis ex semine David, secundum Evangelium meum,According to my gospel. He seems to understand his preaching. Wi.
9 Wherein I labour even unto bands, as an evildoer; but the word of God is not quo laboro usque ad vincula, quasi male operans: sed verbum Dei non est alligatum.In which I labour, or suffer, by the Greek. Wi.
10 Therefore I endure all things for the sake of the elect, that they also may obtain the salvation, which is in Christ Jesus, with heavenly glory.Ideo omnia sustineo propter electos, ut et ipsi salutem consequantur, quæ est in Christo Iesu, cum gloria cælesti.The elect. By the elect, we need not always understand those predestinated to eternal glory, but chosen or called to the true faith; and this must rather be the meaning of S. Paul in this place, who could not distinguish between those predestinated to glory and others. Wi. — Therefore I announce it with full liberty, suffering willingly all I have to endure for the sake of the elect.
11 A faithful saying: for if we be dead with him, we shall live also with him.Fidelis sermo: Nam si commortui sumus, et convivemus:If we be dead with him, to sin, or as others expound it, by martyrdom, we shall live also, and reign with him in heaven. But if we deny him, by renouncing our faith, or by a wicked life, he also will deny us, and disown us hereafter. See Mat. x. 33. He continues always faithful and true to his promises. He is truth, and cannot deny himself. Wi.
12 If we suffer, we shall also reign with him. If we deny him, he will also deny sustinebimus, et conregnabimus: si negaverimus, et ille negabit nos:
13 If we believe not, he continueth faithful, he can not deny non credimus, ille fidelis permanet, negare seipsum non potest.
14 Of these things put them in mind, charging them before the Lord. Contend not in words, for it is to no profit, but to the subverting of the hearers.Hæc commone: testificans coram Domino. Noli contendere verbis: ad nihil enim utile est, nisi ad subversionem audientium.Give this admonition to all, especially to the ministers of the gospel, that they may expose themselves willingly to suffer every thing for the establishment of the faith in Jesus Christ. — Testifying. Call God to witness the truths which you announce to the faithful; and for your part, do not amuse yourself with disputes about words. In the Greek it is thus translated by many: Warn them of these things, by conjuring them in the name of the Lord not to amuse themselves with disputes about words. Calmet.
15 Carefully study to present thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth.Solicite cura teipsum probabilem exhibere Deo, operarium inconfusibilem, recte tractantem verbum veritatis:Thyself approved, [5] or acceptable to God. — Rightly handling. [6] In the Greek, cutting or dividing the word of truth, according to the capacities of the hearers, and for the good of all. Wi. — The Prot. version has, dividing the word of truth. All Christians challenge the Scriptures, but the whole is in the rightly handling them. Heretics change and adulterate them, as the same apostle affirms, 2 Cor. xi. and 4. These he admonishes us (as he did before, 1 Tim. vi. 20.) to avoid, for they have a popular way of expression, by which the unlearned are easily beguiled. "Nothing is so easy," says S. Jerom, "as with a facility and volubility of speech to deceive the illiterate, who are apt to admire what they cannot comprehend." Ep. ii. ad Nepot. c. 10
16 But shun profane and vain babblings: for they grow much towards ungodliness.Profana autem, et vaniloquia devita: multum enim proficiunt ad impietatem:Vain speeches, or vain babbling.[7] He seems to hint at disciples of the magician, and their fables. Wi.
17 And their speech spreadeth like a canker: of whom are Hymeneus and Philetus:et sermo eorum ut cancer serpit: ex quibus est Hymenæus, et Philetus,Like a cancer; [8] others say a canker or gangrene, a distempter that eats the flesh and parts affected. Wi.
18 Who have erred from the truth, saying, that the resurrection is past already, and have subverted the faith of some.qui a veritate exciderunt, dicentes resurrectionem esse iam factam, et subverterunt quorumdam fidem.Saying: That the resurrection is past already. It is uncertain what these heretics meant. Some say they held no resurrection, but that by which some died and some were born. Others that they admitted no resurrection but that by baptism from sin. Others that they called what is related in the gospel, that many bodies of the saints rose, at Christ's death, the only resurrection. Wi. — The fall of Hymenæus and Philetus, who seduced by the false reasonings of Simon Magus had abandoned the faith of the Church, convinced S. Paul of the great importance of opposing the profane novelties of heretics. It is for this that he insists so much on this subject, as well in this as in his first epistle to Timothy. The ancients expressly tell us, that Simon the magician did not believe in the resurrection of the body, but only that of the soul; meaning its resurrection from sin to grace. Epiphanius.
19 But the sure foundation of God standeth firm, having this seal: the Lord knoweth who are his; and let every one depart from iniquity who nameth the name of the Lord.Sed firmum fundamentum Dei stat, habens signaculum hoc: Cognovit Dominus qui sunt eius, et discedat ab iniquitate omnis, qui nominat nomen Domini.But the sure foundation of God and of the Christian faith standeth firm, though some fall from it, and will stand to the end of the world, the Church being built on a rock, and upon the promises of Christ, which cannot fail. Having this seal: the Lord knoweth who are his. The words are applied from Num. xvi. 5. The sense is, that the faith and Church of Christ cannot fail, because God has decreed and promised to remain with his Church, and especially to protect his elect, to the end of the world. To know his, here is not only to have a knowledge, but is accompanied with a love and singular protection over them, with such graces as shall make them persevere to the end. — And let every one that nameth (or invoketh) the name of the Lord, depart from iniquity. Several understand these words, which are similar to those Num. xvi. 26. depart from the tents of these wicked men, to be as it were a second seal, or part of the seal of God's firm decree, inasmuch as the elect by his grace, or when they are prevented and assisted by his grace, will always depart from iniquity; will remain firm in faith, and in the practice of good works: so that this may rather be an effect of the former seal, i.e. of God's decree to protect his elect, than a different seal. Wi. — Whatever efforts hell may make by its agents, the eternal edifice, of which the elect are the living stones, is immoveable, being founded on the immutable decree of divine election, and upon the efficacious and infallible means, which separate the children of the wicked Adam, to bring them and to unite them to Jesus Christ.
20 But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and earth: and some indeed unto honour, but some unto dishonour.In magna autem domo non solum sunt vasa aurea, et argentea, sed et lignea, et fictilia: et quædam quidem in honorem, quædam autem in contumeliam.In a great house there are, &c. Though S. Chrys. by a great house, understands this world, and seems to think that in the Church there are none but precious vessels of gold and of silver, yet this is only true of the perfect part of the Church, as it comprehends the elect only. The common exposition, by the great house, understands the Catholic Church of Christ here upon earth, in which are mixed both vessels of gold and of earth, both good and bad; both the faithful that will be saved, and others that will be lost by not persevering in the faith and grace of Christ. Every one's endeavour must be to cleanse himself from these, to depart from the ways of iniquity, by the assistances of those graces which God offers him, that so he may be a vessel unto honour, not troubling himself about the mysteries and secrets of predestination, but believing and knowing for certain, that if he be not wanting on his part, he can never be lost: and therefore let him follow the admonition of S. Peter, 2 Pet. i. 10. "Wherefore, brethren, labour the more, that by good works you may make sure your vocation and election: for doing these things, you shall not sin at any time." Wi.
21 If any man therefore shall cleanse himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified and profitable to the Lord, prepared unto every good work.Si quis ergo emundaverit se ab istis, erit vas in honorem sanctificatum, et utile Domino ad omne opus bonum paratum.Man, we see here, hath free-will to make himself a vessel of salvation or reprobation; though salvation be attributed to God's mercy, the other to his justice, neither repugnant to our free-will, but working with and by the same, all such effects in us, as to his providence and our deserts are agreeable. B.
22 But flee thou youthful desires, and pursue justice, faith, charity, and peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart.Iuvenilia autem desideria fuge, sectare vero iustitiam, fidem, spem, charitatem, et pacem cum iis, qui invocant Dominum de corde puro.Youthful desires of any kind, not only of luxury and intemperance. Wi.
23 And avoid foolish and unlearned questions, knowing that they beget strifes.Stultas autem, et sine disciplina quæstiones devita: sciens quia generant lites.
24 But the servant of the Lord must not wrangle: but be mild towards all men, apt to teach, patient,Servum autem Domini non oportet litigare: sed mansuetum esse ad omnes, docibilem, patientem,Fit to teach [9] and instruct others. Wi.
25 With modesty admonishing them that resist the truth: if peradventure God may give them repentance to know the truth,cum modestia corripientem eos, qui resistunt veritati: nequando Deus det illis pœnitentiam ad cognoscendam veritatem,If at any time [10] God may touch the hearts of those who believe not, or who lead a wicked life. Wi. — In the Greek it is μηποτε , lest; that is, correct those who resist the truth, in hopes that God will some time bring them by repentance to the knowledge of the truth. The Greek does not express a fear that they will repent, but a certain doubt, mixed with strong hope and earnest desire of their conversion. Conversion from sin and heresy is the gift of God, yet we see good exhortations and prayers are available thereto; which would not be the case if we had not free-will. But these exhortations, to be profitable, must be made as the apostle says, εν πραοτητι ; i.e. with modesty and meekness. Si fortè det Deus illis meliorem mentem; i.e. ut perveniant ad agnitionem ejus veritatis, quam nunc oppugnant.
26 And they may recover themselves from the snares of the devil, by whom they are held captive at his resipiscant a diaboli laqueis, a quo captivi tenentur ad ipsius voluntatem.By whom they are held captives [11] at his will: for sinners wilfully put themselves under the slavery of the devil, and wilfully remain in it. The Greek signifies, that they are taken alive in the devil's nets. Wi.

Footnotes: 2 Timothy 2

Titus 1:5

1 Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of the elect of God and the acknowledging of the truth, which is according to godliness:Paulus servus Dei, Apostolus autem Iesu Christi secundum fidem electorum Dei, et agnitionem veritatis, quæ secundum pietatem estAccording to the faith of the elect of God; that is, of the Christians, now the elect people of God. — Truth, which is according to piety: because there may be truth also in things that regard not piety. By truth, S. Chrys. here understands the truth of the Christian religion, as distinguished from the Jewish worship, which consisted in a great measure in the figures and types of truth. Wi.
2 Unto the hope of life everlasting, which God, who lieth not, hath promised before the times of the world:in spem vitæ æternæ, quam promisit qui non mentitur, Deus, ante tempora sæcularia:Who [1] lieth not, or who cannot lie, being truth itself. — Hath promised; that is, decreed to give life everlasting to his faithful servants. — Before the times of the world. [2] Lit. before secular times. Wi.
3 But hath in due times manifested his word in preaching, which is committed to me according to the commandment of God our Saviour:manifestavit autem temporibus suis verbum suum in prædicatione, quæ credita est mihi secundum præceptum Salvatoris nostri Dei:Manifested his word. S. Jerom understands the word incarnate; others, the word of God preached, which S. Paul says, was committed to him, &c. See S. Chrys. p. 383. Wi.
4 To Titus my beloved son, according to the common faith, grace and peace from God the Father, and from Christ Jesus our Saviour.Tito dilecto filio secundum communem fidem, gratia, et pax a Deo Patre, et Christo Iesu Salvatore nostro.To Titus, my beloved, (in the Greek, my true and[3] genuine son, . . . grace and peace. In the present ordinary Greek copies is added mercy, which the Prot. translators followed; but it is judiciously omitted by Dr. Wells, as not found in the best MMS. nor in S. Chrys. Greek edition, nor in the ancient Greek and Latin Fathers. Wi.
5 For this cause I left thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and shouldest ordain priests in every city, as I also appointed thee:Huius rei gratia reliqui te Cretæ, ut ea, quæ desunt, corrigas, et constituas per civitates presbyteros, sicut et ego disposui tibi.That thou shouldst, [4] &c. The sense cannot be, that he was to change any thing S. Paul had ordered, but to settle things which S. Paul had not time to do; for example, to establish priests [5] in the cities, that is to say, bishops, as the same are called bishops v. 7; and, as S. Chrys. and others observe, it is evident from this very place, that the word presbyter was then used to signify either priests or bishops. If S. Jerom here meant that bishops were only placed over priests by ecclesiastical and not by divine institution, as some have expounded his words, his singular opinion against so many others is not to be followed. Wi. — That the ordaining of priests belongs only to bishops, is evident from the Acts and from S. Paul's epistles to Timothy and Titus. It is true, S. Jerom seems to express himself as if in the primitive Church there was no great difference between priests and bishops, yet he constantly excepts giving holy orders, (ep. 85) as also confirming the baptized, by giving them the Holy Ghost by imposition of hands and holy chrism; (dial. cont. Lucif. c. iv.) which pre-eminence he attributes to bishops only. To assert that there is no distinction between a priest and bishop is an old heresy, condemned as such by the Church. See S. Epiphanius, hær. 75. S. Austin, hær 53.
6 If any be without crime, the husband of one wife, having faithful children, not accused of riot, or unruly.Si quis sine crimine est, unius uxoris vir, filios habens fideles, non in accusatione luxuriæ, aut non subditos.Without crime. See the like qualifications, 1 Tim. iii. Wi. — These words if taken in their strictest meaning, do not seem to have all the force S. Paul meant them to have. For it is not sufficient that a bishop be free from great crimes; he ought, moreover to lead such a life as to draw others by his example to the practice of virtue. Calmet. — If we consult all antiquity we shall find, that if in the early infancy of the Church some who had been once married were ordained to the ministry, we shall find that after their ordination they abstained from the use of marriage. See S. Epiph. l. iii. cont. hær. and l. ii. hæres. 59.
7 For a bishop must be without crime, as the steward of God: not proud, not subject to anger, not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre:Oportet enim episcopum sine crimine esse, sicut Dei dispensatorem: non superbum, non iracundum, non vinolentum, non percussorem, non turpis lucri cupidum:Not proud. [6] The Greek word is of an extensive signification, which the Protestants have translated self-willed. The Latin interpreter (2 Pet. ii. 10.) for the same Greek word has put, pleasing themselves; as it were never pleased with others, the unhappy disposition of a proud man. Wi.
8 But given to hospitality, gentle, sober, just, holy, continent:sed hospitalem, benignum, sobrium, iustum, sanctum, continentem,Continent: [7] though both the Latin and Greek word signify in general, one that hath abstained, or contained, and overcome himself: yet it is particularly used for such as contain themselves from carnal pleasures. Wi.
9 Embracing that faithful word which is according to doctrine, that he may be able to exhort in sound doctrine, and to convince the gainsayers.amplectentem eum, qui secundum doctrinam est, fidelem sermonem: ut potens sit exhortari in doctrina sana, et eos, qui contradicunt, arguere.
10 For there are also many disobedient, vain talkers, and seducers: especially they who are of the circumcision:Sunt enim multi etiam inobedientes, vaniloqui, et seductores: maxime qui de circumcisione sunt:For there are also many. S. Paul here alludes principally to the Jews, who were of the circumcision, from whom S. Paul suffered much during the greater part of his life. They constantly enforced the necessity of the new converted Gentiles observing the law of Moses, and of their being circumcised, if they wished to be saved. There were many Jews of this description in Crete; to resist whom, S. Paul here tells Titus he ought to appoint bishops remarkable for their zeal and learning. Josephus. Socrates, l. ii. c. 38. Hist. Eccles. — Especially they who are of the circumcision; which shews who were chiefly the false teachers. Wi.
11 Who must be reproved, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake.quos oportet redargui: qui universas domos subvertunt, docentes quæ non oportet, turpis lucri gratia.
12 One of them a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are always liars, evil beasts, slothful bellies.Dixit quidam ex illis, proprius ipsorum propheta: Cretenses semper mendaces, malæ bestiæ, ventres pigri.One of them, a prophet of their own. [9] He does not mean a true prophet, but as the pretended prophets of Baal were called prophets. S. Paul understands Epimenides, a poet of Crete, who by some pagan authors was thought to know things to come; but Aristotle says, he knew only things past, not to come. The ill character he gave of the Cretians was, that they were always liars, evil beasts, slothful bellies, addicted to idleness and sensual pleasures. Wi.
13 This testimony is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith;Testimonium hoc verum est. Quam ob causam increpa illos dure, ut sani sint in fide,This testimony, or character, says the apostle, is true, by public fame of them, and therefore they must be rebuked sharply, [10] their condition and dispositions requiring it; which, therefore, is not contrary to the admonition he gave to Timothy, to be gentle towards all. 2 Tim. ii. 24. Wi.
14 Not giving heed to Jewish fables and commandments of men, who turn themselves away from the truth.non intendentes Iudaicis fabulis, et mandatis hominum, aversantium se a veritate.Jewish fables, and commandments of men. False traditions of the Jewish doctors, which were multiplied at that time. Calvin pretended from hence, that holydays and fasting days, and all ordinances of the Catholic Church were to be rejected as null, because they are the precepts of men. By the same argument must be rejected all laws and commands of princes and civil magistrates, as being the precepts of men. Fine doctrine! He might have remembered what S. Paul taught, (Rom. xiii.) that all power is from God; and what Christ said, (Lu. x. 16,) "He that hears you, hears me," &c. He might have observed that the men the apostle here speaks of, had turned [11] away themselves from the Christian faith. Wi.
15 All things are clean to the clean: but to them that are defiled, and to unbelievers, nothing is clean: but both their mind and their conscience are defiled.Omnia munda mundis: coinquinatis autem, et infidelibus nihil est mundum, sed inquinatæ sunt eorum et mens, et conscientia.All things are clean to the clean. That is, no creature is evil of its own nature; and the distinction of animals, clean and unclean, is now out of date, as are the other ceremonies of the Jewish law. And that to these unfaithful, defiled men, nothing is clean, because their consciences are defiled when they make use of them against their conscience. Wi. — S. Paul here tells Titus, to be particularly on his guard against those who wished to introduce among Christians a distinction of meats, and to preach up the necessity of divers purifications prescribed by the Mosaic law. All kinds of meats, he says, are clean to those who preserve their hearts free from sin; it is not what enters into the body defiles a man; it is from the heart that proceed wicked desires and wicked counsels: those defile a man. But to eat with unwashed hands; to eat swine's flesh, or meat that has been offered to idols: these things in themselves are indifferent actions, though particular circumstances may make them criminal. 1 Cor. viii. 4, 5, 6, &c. Calmet. — But to the defiled, &c. On the contrary, the man whose soul is defiled with sin, or who lives in infidelity, never can possess purity of heart; whatever legal washings or purifications, whatever sacrifices or ceremonies of the law he may make use of, all these cannot wash away the stains of the soul. Estius. Men. Tir.
16 They profess that they know God: but in their works they deny him; being abominable, and incredulous, and to every good work reprobate.Confitentur se nosse Deum, factis autem negant: cum sint abominati, et incredibiles, et ad omne opus bonum reprobi.They confess that they know God. He speaks not therefore of those who were properly infidels, without the knowledge of the true God; so that it is foolish to pretend from hence, that every action of an infidel must be a sin. Wi.

Footnotes: Titus 1