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2 Kings 12:13-14;Wisdom 3:5-6;Zacharias 13:8-9;1 Corinthians 3:13;1 Corinthians 3:15;Colossians 1:24;1 Peter 1:6-7;Jude 1:23 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel
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(2 Samuel) 2 Kings 12:13-14

Douay-RheimsDouay-Rheims Bible — The New Testament was published at Rheims, France (1582), the Old Testament at Douay (1609) by exiled English Catholic scholars. Bishop Challoner updated it extensively mid-18th century. The Douay-Rheims served as the English bible for the Catholic world for centuries. This text set is from an approved 1914 U.S. printing.Clementine Latin VulgateClementine Latin Vulgate Bible — Update to the Latin Vulgate Bible of St. Jerome, a foundational Catholic bible, originally issued under Pope Sixtus V and authoritatively revised by Pope Clement VIII, hence its name. This 1914 printing starts with the original Clementine text and takes into account variations in prior printings as well as correctoria officially issued by the Vatican.Haydock CommentaryHaydock Catholic Bible Commentary — Originally compiled by Catholic priest and biblical scholar Rev. George Leo Haydock (1774-1849); written with the Douay-Rheims Bible in view.Sacred Scripture ShortcutsSacred Scripture Shortcuts — Over 1,600 bible verses that underlie Catholic teachings and practice, especially those that are disputed by non-Catholics or are otherwise controversial.
1 And the Lord sent Nathan to David: and when he was come to him, he said to him: There were two men in one city, the one rich, and the other poor.Misit ergo Dominus Nathan ad David: qui cum venisset ad eum, dixit ei: Duo viri erant in civitate una, unus dives, et alter pauper.Unto him, after the birth of the child. A whole year had nearly elapsed, and David continued blind and impenitent. The spirit of prophecy had left him; and, though he was clear-sighted, and equitable enough to punish the faults of others, he could not discern his own picture, till Nathan had removed the veil. The prophet acted with the utmost prudence, and did not condemn the king till he had pronounced sentence on himself. It is commonly supposed that the interview was private. S. Chrysostom believes that the chief lords of the court were present; which would enhance the discretion of Nathan, as well as David's humility. C.
2 The rich man had exceeding many sheep and oxen.Dives habebat oves, et boves plurimos valde.
3 But the poor man had nothing at all but one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up, and which had grown up in his house together with his children, eating of his bread, and drinking of his cup, and sleeping in his bosom: and it was unto him as a daughter.Pauper autem nihil habebat omnino, præter ovem unam parvulam, quam emerat et nutrierat, et quæ creverat apud eum cum filiis eius simul, de pane illius comedens, et de calice eius bibens, et in sinu illius dormiens: eratque illi sicut filia.Daughter. All these expressions tended to shew the affection of the owner for this pet lamb. H. --- In Arabia, one of the finest is commonly fed in the house along with the children. Bochart, Anim. T. i. B. ii. 46. --- It is not necessary that every word of this parable should have been verified in Bethsabee. C. --- Many things are usually added for ornament. M. --- Yet she had been treated in the most tender manner by her husband, who had her alone, while David had eighteen wives. H.
4 And when a certain stranger was come to the rich man, he spared to take of his own sheep and oxen, to make a feast for that stranger, who was come to him, but took the poor man's ewe, and dressed it for the man that was come to him.Cum autem peregrinus quidam venisset ad divitem, parcens ille sumere de ovibus et de bobus suis, ut exhiberet convivium peregrino illi, qui venerat ad se, tulit ovem viri pauperis, et præparavit cibos homini qui venerat ad se.To him. This wanton cruelty caused David to pronounce him deserving of death; as simple theft was punished with only a four-fold restitution. Ex. xxii. 1. Judges sometimes diminish, and at other times increase, the severity of the law, according to the dispositions of the offenders, which lawgivers could not exactly foresee. C.
5 And David's anger being exceedingly kindled against that man, he said to Nathan: As the Lord liveth, the man that hath done this is a child of death.Iratus autem indignatione David adversus hominem illum nimis, dixit ad Nathan: Vivit Dominus, quoniam filius mortis est vir qui fecit hoc.
6 He shall restore the ewe fourfold, because he did this thing, and had no pity.Ovem reddet in quadruplum, eo quod fecerit verbum istud, et non pepercerit.Fold. Sept. "seven-fold," which Grabe corrects by the Heb. H. --- David lost four of his sons; the first born of Bethsabee, Amnon, Absalon, and Adonias: and saw his daughter Thamar, (C.) and his ten inferior wives, dishonoured, in punishment of his crime. M.
7 And Nathan said to David: Thou art the man. Thus saith the Lord the God of Israel: I anointed thee king over Israel, and I delivered thee from the hand of Saul,Dixit autem Nathan ad David: Tu es ille vir. Hæc dicit Dominus Deus Israel: Ego unxi te in regem super Israel, et ego erui te de manu Saul,The man, against whom thou hast pronounced sentence, and who has treated thy neighbour with still less pity. H.

Mutato nomine de te

Fabula narratur. Hor.

8 And gave thee thy master's house and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and Juda: and if these things be little, I shall add far greater things unto thee.et dedi tibi domum domini tui, et uxores domini tui in sinu tuo, dedique tibi domum Israel et Iuda: et si parva sunt ista, adiiciam tibi multo maiora.Wives. We know of none that David married. But, as king, he enjoyed alone that privilege. Grot. C. ii. 7. and xvi. 21. --- Unto thee. Heb. "I would have given thee such and such." C. --- Sept. "I will moreover give thee like unto these;" a continuation of prosperity. H. --- This singular love, which God was still disposed to manifest unto David, touched his heart with peculiar force. Salien.
9 Why therefore hast thou despised the word of the Lord, to do evil in my sight? Thou hast killed Urias the Hethite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of Ammon.Quare ergo contempsisti verbum Domini ut faceres malum in conspectu meo? Uriam Hethæum percussisti gladio, et uxorem illius accepisti in uxorem tibi, et interfecisti eum gladio filiorum Ammon.
10 Therefore the sword shall never depart from thy house, because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Urias the Hethite to be thy wife.Quam ob rem non recedet gladius de domo tua usque in sempiternum, eo quod despexeris me, et tuleris uxorem Uriæ Hethæi, ut esset uxor tua.House. What a dismal scene opens itself to our view during the remaining part of David's reign! H. --- Scarcely one of his successors was free from war; even Solomon was disturbed by the rebellion of Jeroboam, &c. and many of David's family and descendants came to an untimely end, v. 6. C. --- Six sons of Josaphat, all Joram's, except one, Josias, the children of Sedecias, &c. 4 K. xxv. &c. W.
11 Thus saith the Lord: Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thy own house, and I will take thy wives before thy eyes I and give them to thy neighhour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun.Itaque hæc dicit Dominus: Ecce, ego suscitabo super te malum de domo tua, et tollam uxores tuas in oculis tuis, et dabo proximo tuo, et dormiet cum uxoribus tuis in oculis Solis huius.
12 For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing in the sight of all Israel, and in the sight of the sun.Tu enim fecisti abscondite: ego autem faciam verbum istud in conspectu omnis Israel, et in conspectu Solis.Sun, publicly. C. xvi. 22. How abominable soever this conduct of an unnatural son must have been to God, he says, I will do this; because, when he might have prevented it by a more powerful grace, or by the death of the delinquent, he suffered him to carry his infernal project into execution. H.
13 And David said to Nathan: I have sinned against the Lord. And Nathan said to David: The Lord also hath taken away thy sin: thou shalt not die.Et dixit David ad Nathan: Peccavi Domino. Dixitque Nathan ad David: Dominus quoque transtulit peccatum tuum: non morieris.Sinned. His confession was sincere, and very different from that of Saul, 1 K. xv. 24. "The expression was the same; but God saw the difference of the heart." S. Aug. con. Faust. xxii. 27. --- Sin. He has remitted the fault and the eternal punishment, and he has greatly diminished the temporal chastisement, and will not inflict instant death, as he seemed to have threatened, v. 10. C. --- "The speedy remission shewed the greatness of the king's repentance." S. Amb. Apol. 2.
14 Nevertheless, because thou hast given occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, for this thing, the child that is born to thee, shall surely die.Verumtamen, quoniam blasphemare fecisti inimicos Domini, propter verbum hoc, filius, qui natus est tibi, morte morietur.Occasion. Lit. "made" almost, in the same sense, as God threatened to do, what was effected by Absalom, v. 12. David did not co-operate with the malice of infidels; but he was responsible for it: in as much as he had committed an unlawful action, which gave them occasion to blaspheme God, as if he had not been able to foresee this scandalous transaction. Thus God and religion are often vilified, on account of the misconduct of those who have the happiness to be well informed, but do not live up to their profession: but this mode of argumentation is very fallacious and uncandid. It ought, however, to be a caution to the servants of the true God, never to do any thing which may have such fatal consequences; and alienate the minds of weak men for the truth. --- Die. Thus infidels would see, that God did not suffer David to pass quite unpunished. H.
15 And Nathan returned to his house. The Lord also struck the child which the wife of Urias had borne to David, and his life was despaired of.Et reversus est Nathan in domum suam. Percussit quoque Dominus parvulum, quem pepererat uxor Uriæ David, et desperatus est.Of. Heb. "it was sick" (C.) of a fever.
16 And David besought the Lord for the child: and David kept a fast, and going in by himself lay upon the ground.Deprecatusque est David Dominum pro parvulo: et ieiunavit David ieiunio, et ingressus seorsum, iacuit super terram.A fast, ( jejunavit jejunio ) denotes, with more than ordinary rigour. Salien. --- By himself. Heb. "he went in, and lay all night upon the ground." H.
17 And the ancients of his house came, to make him rise from the ground: but he would not, neither did he eat meat with them.Venerunt autem seniores domus eius, cogentes eum ut surgeret de terra: qui noluit, nec comedit cum eis cibum.
18 And it came to pass on the seventh day that the child died: and the servants of David feared to tell him, that the child was dead. For they said: Behold when the child was yet alive, we spoke to him, and he would not hearken to our voice: how much more will he afflict himself if we tell him that the child is dead?Accidit autem die septima ut moreretur infans: timueruntque servi David nunciare ei quod mortuus esset parvulus. dixerunt enim: Ecce cum parvulus adhuc viveret, loquebamur ad eum, et non audiebat vocem nostram: quanto magis si dixerimus: Mortuus est puer, se affliget?Day. After his birth, when he had received circumcision; (Salien) or on the 7th day since the commencement of his malady. C. M.
19 But when David saw his servants whispering, he understood that the child was dead: and he said to his servants: Is the child dead? They answered him: He is dead.Cum ergo David vidisset servos suos mussitantes, intellexit quod mortuus esset infantulus: dixitque ad servos suos: Num mortuus est puer? Qui responderunt ei: Mortuus est.
20 Then David arose from the ground, and washed and anointed himself: and when he had changed his apparel, he went into the house of the Lord: and worshipped, and then he came into his own house, and he called for bread, and ate.Surrexit ergo David de terra: et lotus unctusque est: cumque mutasset vestem, ingressus est domum Domini: et adoravit, et venit in domum suam, petivitque ut ponerent ei panem, et comedit.
21 And his servants said to him: What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive, but when the child was dead, thou didst rise up, and eat bread.Dixerunt autem ei servi sui: Quis est sermo, quem fecisti? propter infantem, cum adhuc viveret, ieiunasti et flebas: mortuo autem puero, surrexisti, et comedisti panem.
22 And he said: While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept for him: for I said: Who knoweth whether the Lord may not give him to me, and the child may live?Qui ait: Propter infantem, dum adhuc viveret, ieiunavi et flevi: dicebam enim: Quis scit si forte donet eum mihi Dominus, et vivat infans?
23 But now that he is dead, why should I fast? Shall I be able to bring him back any more? I shall go to him rather: but he shall not return to me.Nunc autem quia mortuus est, quare ieiunem? Numquid potero revocare eum amplius? ego vadam magis ad eum: ille vero non revertetur ad me.To me. No instance of any one being raised from the dead had yet occurred; though David did not disbelieve its possibility. M.
24 And David comforted Bethsabee his wife, and went in unto her, and slept with her: and she bore a son, and he called his name Solomon, and the Lord loved him.Et consolatus est David Bethsabee uxorem suam, ingressusque ad eam, dormivit cum ea: quæ genuit filium, et vocavit nomen eius Salomon, et Dominus dilexit eum.Wife. She had partaken in his affliction and repentance. The Jews say that David told her the divine oracle, which is mentioned 3 K. i. 13. 17, that her next son should succeed to the throne. Salien (A. 3000) supposes that he was conceived in May, two months after the death of Bethsabee's first-born, and came into the world about he time of the Passover. --- Solomon, "the pacific." See 1 Par. xxii. 9. M.
25 And he sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet, and called his name, Amiable to the Lord, because the Lord loved him.Misitque in manu Nathan prophetæ, et vocavit nomen eius, Amabilis Domino, eo quod diligeret eum Dominus.Amiable to the Lord. Or beloved of the Lord. In Hebrew, Yedideya. Ch. --- Loved him, is not expressed in Heb. "because of the Lord." H. --- Theodotion, "in the word, or agreeably to, the order of the Lord." Solomon never went by the name which God here gives him, (C.) except in this place. M. --- It shews the gratuitous predilection which God had for him; but affords no proof of his predestination to glory, of which there is too much reason to doubt. C.
26 And Joab fought against Rabbath of the children of Ammon, and laid close siege to the royal city.Igitur pugnabat Ioab contra Rabbath filiorum Ammon, et expugnabat urbem regiam.
27 And Joab sent messengers to David, saying: I have fought against Rabbath, and the city of waters is about to be taken.Misitque Ioab nuncios ad David, dicens: Dimicavi adversum Rabbath, et capienda est Urbs aquarum.The city of waters. Rabbath, the royal city of the Ammonites, was called the city of waters, from being encompassed with waters. Ch. See C. v. 8. --- The Heb. in the preceding verse seems to insinuate, (H.) that "he had taken the royal city." But he was only on the point of doing it, or had, perhaps, made himself master of some part of it. Here the Heb. "I have taken," may be explained in the same sense, unless the city of waters were the lower part of Rabbath, lying on the Jaboc. Junius translates, "He cut off the waters, which entered the city;" and Josephus favours this explanation. It seems the siege lasted about two years. C. --- Antiochus took this city, by depriving the inhabitants of water. Polyb. v.
28 Now therefore gather thou the rest of the people together, and besiege the city and take it: lest when the city shall be wasted by me, the victory be ascribed to my name.Nunc igitur congrega reliquam partem populi, et obside civitatem, et cape eam: ne, cum a me vastata fuerit urbs, nomini meo ascribatur victoria.Take it. The higher, and more impregnable part; which honour Joab reserved for David.
29 Then David gathered all the people together, and went out against Rabbath: and after fighting, he took it.Congregavit itaque David omnem populum, et profectus est adversum Rabbath: cumque dimicasset, cepit eam.
30 And he took the crown of their king from his head, the weight of which was a talent of gold, set with most precious stones, and it was put upon David's head, and the spoils of the city which were very great he carried away.Et tulit diadema regis eorum de capite eius, pondo auri talentum, habens gemmas pretiosissimas, et impositum est super caput David. Sed et prædam civitatis asportavit multam valde:King. Heb. Malcam, "their king." Moloc, "king," or the chief idol of the Ammonites. It was forbidden to use the ornaments of the idols on Chanaan, but not of other nations. This crown might be worth a talent, on account of the gold and precious stones; (1 Par. xx. 2. Sanchez. Bochart,) or it might weigh so much as almost 87 pounds, (C.) or above 113 pounds English. H. --- such immence crowns were sometimes suspended for ornament, over the throne; as Benjamin of Tudela says was done by the emperor Commenes. Pliny describes one of nine pounds; and Athenæus (v. 8,) another of 80 cubits, or 40 yards (H.) in circumference. C. --- The idol, or the king of Ammon, (M.) might have one of the like nature, suspended. The Rabbins say David caused it to hand in the air by means of a load-stone; as if it would attract gold! C.
31 And bringing forth the people thereof he sawed them, and drove over them chariots armed with iron: and divided them with knives, and made them pass through brickkilns: so did he to all the cities of the children of Ammon: and David returned, with all the army to Jerusalem.populum quoque eius adducens serravit, et circumegit super eos ferrata carpenta: divisitque cultris, et traduxit in typo laterum: sic fecit universis civitatibus filiorum Ammon: et reversus est David, et omnis exercitus in Ierusalem. Sawed. Heb. "he put them under saws, and under rollers of iron, and under knives," &c. H. --- The Jews say that Isaias was killed by being sawed asunder; to which punishment S. Paul alludes. Heb. xi. 37. M. --- Brick-kilns, or furnaces. Ps. xx. 10. Muis. --- David and his companions were thrown into the fiery furnace. Dan. iii. 6. 11. Est. xiii. 7. C. --- Some condemn David of excessive cruelty on this occasion. T. Sanctius. --- But the Scripture represents his conduct as irreproachable, except in the affair of Urias; (3 K. xv. 5,) and at this distance of time, we know not the motives which might have actuated him to treat his enemy with such severity. The Ammonites had probably exercised similar cruelties on his subjects. See 1 K. xi. 2. Amos i. 13. C. --- They had shamefully violated the law of nations, and had stirred up various kings against David. M. --- Salien blames Joab for what may seem too cruel. But, though he was barbarous and vindictive, we need not condemn him on this occasion, no more than his master; as we are not to judge of former times by our own manners. H. --- War was then carried on with great cruelty. C.

(Wisdom of Solomon) Wisdom 3:5-6

1 But the souls of the just are in the hand of God, and the torment of death shall not touch them.Iustorum autem animæ in manu Dei sunt, et non tangent illos tormentum mortis.Of death, is not in Sept. During life the just are protected by God, (Lu. xii. 7.) and still more in death. This passage is very applicable to martyrs. C. --- Temporal death is to the just the road to happiness, where they shall not incur damnation, or the torment of death. Though the martyrs seem to be utterly destroyed, they pass to joys eternal and unspeakable. W.
2 In the sight of the unwise they seemed to die: and their departure was taken for misery:Visi sunt oculis insipientium mori: et æstimata est afflictio exitus illorum:Die. In this the wicked are not under a mistake; but they err when they suppose that the just shall be no more. If the hopes of the pious where confined to this world, they would be the most miserable of all. 1 Cor. xv. 19. C.
3 And their going away from us, for utter destruction: but they are in peace.et quod a nobis est iter, exterminium: illi autem sunt in pace.
4 And though in the sight of men they suffered torments, their hope is full of immortality.Et si coram hominibus tormenta passi sunt, spes illorum immortalitate plena est.
5 Afflicted in few things, in many they shall be well rewarded: because God hath tried them, and found them worthy of himself.In paucis vexati, in multis bene disponentur: quoniam Deus tentavit eos, et invenit illos dignos se.
6 As gold in the furnace he hath proved them, and as a victim of a holocaust he hath received them, and in time there shall be respect had to them.Tamquam aurum in fornace probavit illos, et quasi holocausti hostiam accepit illos, et in tempore erit respectus illorum.Holocaust. The sufferings (M.) which they have voluntarily endured, cause them to be pleasing to God. H. Zac. xiii. 9. --- Time of judgment, or of death. C. --- Sept. "at the time of their visitation, they shall shine, and," &c. v. 7. Matt. xiii. 43. H. Zac. xii. 6.
7 The just shall shine, and shall run to and fro like sparks among the reeds.Fulgebunt iusti et tamquam scintillæ in arundineto discurrent.
8 They shall judge nations, and rule over people, and their Lord shall reign for ever.Iudicabunt nationes, et dominabuntur populis, et regnabit Dominus illorum in perpetuum.Judge. All the just shall approve of God's condemning the wicked. W. --- They shall be invested with power, (Apoc. ii. 26. Matthew xix. 28.) which, like that of Christ, will be of a spiritual nature, (H.) and will appear most terrible at the last day. Matt. xxviii. 18. Apoc. xix. 6. C.
9 They that trust in him, shall understand the truth: and they that are faithful in love shall rest in him: for grace and peace is to his elect.Qui confidunt in illo, intelligent veritatem: et fideles in dilectione acquiescent illi: quoniam donum et pax est electis eius.Elect. Sept. add, "and a visitation for his saints." Charity secures both faith and hope; which, without it, are unavailing to happiness. H. --- Those who have the virtue of hope, will await the completion of God's promises.
10 But the wicked shall be punished according to their own devices: who have neglected the just, and have revolted from the Lord.Impii autem secundum quæ cogitaverunt, correptionem habebunt: qui neglexerunt iustum, et a Domino recesserunt.
11 For he that rejecteth wisdom, and discipline, is unhappy: and their hope is vain, and their labours without fruit, and their works unprofitable.Sapientiam enim, et disciplinam qui abiicit, infelix est: et vacua est spes illorum, et labores sine fructu, et inutilia opera eorum.
12 Their wives are foolish, and their children wicked.Mulieres eorum insensatæ sunt, et nequissimi filii eorum.Foolish. Dissolute, as the sequel shews. Prov. ix. 13. Rom. i. 26. The family of the wicked imitate his conduct, and become his torment. C. --- This is often the case. In the moral sense, the sensuality and works of the impious are corrupt. W.
13 Their offspring is cursed: for happy is the barren: and the undefiled, that hath not known bed in sin: she shall have fruit in the visitation of holy souls.Maledicta creatura eorum, quoniam felix est sterilis: et incoinquinata, quæ nescivit thorum in delicto, habebit fructum in respectione animarum sanctarum:Barren. The Jews deemed this a reproach. But it is better than to have children by a crime. M. --- Fruit. Her good works shall serve instead of children for her glory, at the hour of death.
14 And the eunuch, that hath not wrought iniquity with his hands, nor thought wicked things against God: for the precious gift of faith shall be given to him, and a most acceptable lot in the temple of God.et spado, qui non operatus est per manus suas iniquitatem, nec cogitavit adversus Deum nequissima: dabitur enim illi fidei donum electum, et sors in templo Dei acceptissima.
15 For the fruit of good labours is glorious, and the root of wisdom never faileth.Bonorum enim laborum gloriosus est fructus, et quæ non concidat radix sapientiæ.
16 But the children of adulterers shall not come to perfection, and the seed of the unlawful bed shall be rooted out.Filii autem adulterorum in inconsummatione erunt, et ab iniquo thoro semen exterminabitur.Perfection. Lit. "shall be in consummation," or wholly destroyed. H. --- They shall not come to age, or Sept. "initiated." The pagans excluded the base-born from their mysteries, as the Church does from holy orders; and experience shews, that the fruits of adultery are often miserable, (C.) and while they imitate their parents, they can have no hope. v. 18.
17 And if they live long, they shall be nothing regarded, and their last old age shall be without honour.Et si quidem longæ vitæ erunt, in nihilum computabuntur, et sine honore erit novissima senectus illorum.
18 And if they die quickly, they shall have no hope, nor speech of comfort in the day of trial.Et si celerius defuncti fuerint, non habebunt spem, nec in die agnitionis allocutionem. Trial. Lit. "of knowing" (H.) the works of all. The crime of adulterers is not imputed to their offspring; and it sometimes happens, that the children of saints are cast away.

19 For dreadful are the ends of a wicked race.Nationis enim iniquæ diræ sunt consummationes.

(Zechariah) Zacharias 13:8-9

1 In that day there shall be a fountain open to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem: for the washing of the sinner, and of the unclean woman.In die illa erit fons patens domui David, et habitantibus Ierusalem in ablutionem peccatoris et menstruatæ.
2 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord of hosts, that I will destroy the names of idols out of the earth, and they shall be remembered no more: and I will take away the false prophets, and the unclean spirit out of the earth.Et erit in die illa, dicit Dominus exercituum: Disperdam nomina idolorum de terra, et non memorabuntur ultra: et pseudoprophetas, et spiritum immundum auferam de terra.No more. After the Machabees, the people were free from idolatry, and magical arts were repressed. Osee ii. 16. Ezec. xxxvii. 22. C. --- "Idolatry and heresy are punishable by death, in the law of Christ." W. --- To judge in these matters belongs only to the Church. H.
3 And it shall come to pass, that when any man shall prophesy any more, his father and his mother that brought him into the world, shall say to him: Thou shalt not live: because thou hast spoken a lie in the name of the Lord. And his father, and his mother, his parents, shall thrust him through, when he shall prophesy.Et erit, cum prophetaverit quispiam ultra, dicent ei pater eius, et mater eius, qui genuerunt eum: Non vives: quia mendacium locutus es in nomine Domini. et configent eum pater eius, et mater eius, genitores eius, cum prophetaverit.Not live. The law condemned those prophets to death, who attempted to lead the people into idolatry. Deut. xiii. 1. People shall be so zealous for God's honour, that the parents of the seducer shall themselves (C.) bring him to judgment. H. --- Through, or make some mark upon him, as fugitive slaves, &c. were stigmatized. C. --- Sept. "shall shackle." H. --- These before interpreted dakar, danced, or insulted. The others have in both places, "pierced." S. Jer. --- The person was not slain. v. 6.
4 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the prophets shall be confounded, every one by his own vision, when he shall prophesy, neither shall they be clad with a garment of sackcloth, to deceive:Et erit: In die illa confundentur prophetæ, unusquisque ex visione sua cum prophetaverit: nec operientur pallio saccino, ut mentiantur:Vision. They shall have no appearance of truth. --- Sackcloth. Heb. "hairy skin;" adereth. Such were used by kings. Jon. iii. 6. The people shall not be deceived by such appearances, so that these garments will not be used. The Jews have always been ready to receive impostors. Mat. vii. 15. Yet they shall not be so frequent, or dangerous. The prophets used coarse hairy garments. 4 K. i. 8.
5 But he shall say: I am no prophet, I am a husbandman: for Adam is my example from my youth.sed dicet: Non sum propheta, homo agricola ego sum: quoniam Adam exemplum meum ab adolescentia mea.Husbandman. Worldly occupations were incompatible with the office of prophets. 3 K. xix 20. Amos vii. 15. Mat. iv. 20. The (C.) false (H.) prophets will become so odious, that people will excuse themselves from taking up the calling. --- Example. I am condemned like him to labour. Gen. iii. 17. Sept. "a man begot me." Heb. "taught, or bought me, (C.) or caused me to work." De Dieu.
6 And they shall say to him: What are these wounds in the midst of thy hands? And he shall say: With these I was wounded in the house of them that loved me.Et dicetur ei: Quid sunt plagæ istæ in medio manuum tuarum? Et dicet: His plagatus sum in domo eorum, qui diligebant me.Loved me. My parents marked me thus. v. 3. C. --- Some have understood this of Jesus Christ. Rupert. S. Tho. --- But the context excludes this interpretation, which would be injurious to him. C. --- The false prophet is reformed by his parents' correction, so that he applies to agriculture, and owns that he had been justly punished. S. Jer. H.
7 Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that cleaveth to me, saith the Lord of hosts: strike the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered: and I will turn my hand to the little ones.Framea suscitare super pastorem meum, et super virum cohærentem mihi, dicit Dominus exercituum: percute pastorem, et dispergentur oves: et convertam manum meam ad parvulos.Sword. This address rouses attention. C. --- The sword implies all the torments which Christ endured. W. --- He explains this of himself; only instead of strike, he says I will strike, (Mat. xxvi. 31.) as the sword was directed by God. H. --- Patris voluntate percussus est. S. Jer. --- Cleaveth. Heb. hamithi, "my amiable one;" (H.) "of the same tribe with me;" (Aq.) "of my people." Sym. S. Jerom observes, that Sept. and Th. have read v for the last i, and render "his neighbour," or citizen. Yet some editions of the Sept. retain "my fellow-citizen." H. --- Little ones. Sept. Arab. &c. "shepherds," (C.) which "many ill apply to the Jewish princes." S. Jer. --- Tsoharim means also "the little." Mic. v. 2. Christ takes care of his little flock, (Lu. xii. 32. H.) and is always one with the Father. Jo. viii. 29. and x. 30. C. --- He recalled the flying apostles, and gave them courage. W.
8 And there shall be in all the earth, saith the Lord, two parts in it shall be scattered, and shall perish: but the third part shall be left therein.Et erunt in omni terra, dicit Dominus: partes duæ in ea dispergentur, et deficient: et tertia pars relinquetur in ea.Third. The greatest part of mankind will be lost. H. --- The few Jews who embrace the faith will be absorbed in the Gentile converts, and suffered to live, though proved by persecutions, while the rest shall be exterminated. Both shall lose their name, and be styled Christians. C. --- Those who adhere to Judaism, or to paganism, cannot be saved. This is the privilege only of Christian Catholics, who live piously, and are selected by God's grace. W.
9 And I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined: and I will try them as gold is tried. They shall call on my name, and I will hear them. I will say: Thou art my people: and they shall say: The Lord is my God.Et ducam tertiam partem per ignem, et uram eos sicut uritur argentum: et probabo eos sicut probatur aurum. Ipse vocabit nomen meum, et ego exaudiam eum. Dicam: Populus meus es; et ipse dicet: Dominus Deus meus. Fire. The Church was persecuted during the first centuries; but always became more pure, and the blood of martyrs increased her numbers. C. --- She faithfully adhered to God. H. --- The Jews say this will not take place at last: "but we assert that it is already accomplished." S. Jer.

1 Corinthians 3:13

1 And I, brethren, could not speak to you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal. As unto little ones in Christ.Et ego, fratres, non potui vobis loqui quasi spiritualibus, sed quasi carnalibus. Tamquam parvulis in Christo,
2 I gave you milk to drink, not meat; for you were not able as yet. But neither indeed are you now able; for you are yet carnal.lac vobis potum dedi, non escam: nondum enim poteratis: sed nec nunc quidem potestis: adhuc enim carnales estis.
3 For, whereas there is among you envying and contention, are you not carnal, and walk according to man?Cum enim sit inter vos zelus, et contentio: nonne carnales estis, et secundum hominem ambulatis?And walk according to man? As carnal and sensual men, as long as there are jealousies and divisions among you. Wi.
4 For while one saith, I indeed am of Paul; and another, I am of Apollo; are you not men? What then is Apollo, and what is Paul?Cum enim quis dicat: Ego quidem sum Pauli. Alius autem: Ego Apollo: nonne homines estis? Quid igitur est Apollo? quid vero Paulus?
5 The ministers of him whom you have believed; and to every one as the Lord hath given.Ministri eius, cui credidistis, ut unicuique sicut Dominus dedit.
6 I have planted, Apollo watered, but God gave the increase.Ego plantavi, Apollo rigavit: sed Deus incrementum dedit.
7 Therefore, neither he that planteth is any thing, nor he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase.Itaque neque qui plantat est aliquid, neque qui rigat: sed, qui incrementum dat, Deus.That planteth you by your first conversion. Apollo watered you by preaching the same truths. — He that planteth and watered, are one, aim at one and the same end. Wi. — According to his own labour. God does not recompense his servants according to the success of their labours, because their success depends upon him alone; but he recompenses them according to their sufferings and diligence in his service; for, whilst he crowns the labour of his apostles with success, he crowns his own work. S. Chrys. — This text most evidently proves that good works proceeding from grace are meritorious, and that the rewards in heaven are different, according as God sees just to appropriate them. The Greek word here employed is μισθος , (merces) or wages. See 1 Tim. v. 18. Apoc. xxii. 12. Matt. xvi. 27. It is by our union with Jesus Christ that our actions, of themselves without value or merit, become gold, silver, and precious stones. A.
8 Now he that planteth, and he that watereth, are one. And every man shall receive his own reward, according to his own labour.Qui autem plantat, et qui rigat, unum sunt. Unusquisque autem propriam mercedem accipiet secundum suum laborem.
9 For we are God's coadjutors: you are God's husbandry; you are God's building.Dei enim sumus adiutores: Dei agricultura estis, Dei ædificatio estis.We are God's coadjutors, labouring in his service, as he hath employed us. — You are God's husbandry, the soil, where virtues are to be planted. You are God's building, the edifice, the house, or even the temple of God; we are employed as builders under God. Wi.
10 According to the grace of God that is given to me, as a wise architect, I have laid the foundation; and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.Secundum gratiam Dei, quæ data est mihi, ut sapiens architectus fundamentum posui: alius autem superædificat. Unusquisque autem videat quomodo superædificet.I have laid the foundation well, as a wise architect, not of myself, but according to the grace of God, and the gifts he bestowed upon me: and another, or several others, build upon it, continue the building. — But let every man take heed how he buildeth, and that it be always upon the same foundation, which is Christ Jesus, his faith, and his doctrine. Wi.
11 For other foundation no man can lay, but that which is laid; which is Christ Jesus.Fundamentum enim aliud nemo potest ponere præter id, quod positum est, quod est Christus Iesus.
12 Now if any man build upon this foundation, gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble:Si quis autem superædificat super fundamentum hoc, aurum, argentum, lapides pretiosos, ligna, fœnum, stipulam,Now if any man build, &c. This is a hard place, says S. Aug. l. de fid. & Oper. c. xvi. tom. 6. p. 180. The interpreters are divided, as to the explication and application of this metaphorical comparison, contained in these four verses. S. Paul speaks of a building, where it is evident, says S. Aug. that the foundation is Christ, or the faith of Christ, and his faith working by charity. The difficulties are 1. Who are the builders. 2. What is meant by gold, silver, precious stones, and what by wood, hay, stubble. 3. What is meant by the day of the Lord. 4. What by fire, how every one's work shall be tried, and how some shall be saved by fire. As to the first, by the builders, as S. Paul had before called himself the first architect, who had laid the foundation of the faith of Christ among the Corinthians, interpreters commonly understand those doctors and preachers who there succeeded S. Paul: but as it is also said, that every man's works shall be made manifest, S. Aug. and others understand not the preachers only, but all the faithful. As to the second difficulty, if by the builders we understand the preachers of the gospel, then by gold, silver, &c., is to be understood, good, sound, and profitable doctrine; and by wood, hay, stubble, a mixture of vain knowledge, empty flourishes, unprofitable discourses; but if all the faithful are builders, they whose actions are pure, lay gold upon the foundation; but if their actions are mixed with imperfections, venial failings, and lesser sins, these are represented by wood, hay, stubble, &c. 3. By the day of the Lord, is commonly understood either the day of general judgment, or the particular judgment, when every one is judged at his death, which sentence shall be confirmed again at the last day. 4. As to fire, which is mentioned thrice, if we consider what S. Paul says here of fire, he seems to use it in different significations, as he many times does other words. First, he tells us, (v. 13.) that the day of the Lord . . . shall be revealed; or, as it is in the Greek, is revealed in, or by fire; where, by fire, is commonly understood the just and severe judgments of God, represented by the metaphor of fire. Secondly, he tells us in the same verse, that fire shall try every one's work, of what sort it is. This may be again taken for the examining and trying fire of God's judgments: and may be applied to the builders, whether preachers only or all the faithful. Thirdly, he tells us, (v. 14. and 15.) that some men's works abide the fire of God's judgments, they deserve no punishment, they are like pure gold, which receives no prejudice from the fire: but some men's works burn, the superstructure, which they built upon the faith of Christ, besides gold, silver, precious stones, had also a mixture of wood, hay, stubble, which could not stand the trial of fire, which met with combustible matter, that deserved to be burnt. Every such man shall suffer a loss, when his works are burnt, but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire. Here the apostle speaks of fire in a more ample signification: of a fire which shall not only try, and examine, but also burn, and punish the builders, who notwithstanding shall also, after a time, escape from the fire, and be saved by fire, and in the day of the Lord, that is, after life (for the time of this life is the day of men). Divers of the ancient fathers, as well as later interpreters, from these words, prove the Catholic doctrine of a purgatory, that is, that many Christians, who die guilty, not of heinous or mortal sins, but of lesser, and what are called venial sins, or to whom a temporal punishment for the sins they have committed, still remains due, before they can be admitted to a reward in heaven, (into which nothing defiled or unclean can enter ) must suffer some punishments for a time, in some place, which is called Purgatory, and in such a manner, as is agreeable to the divine justice, before their reward in heaven. These words of the apostle, the Latin Fathers in the Council of Florence[1] brought against the Greeks to prove purgatory, to which the Greeks (who did not deny a purgatory, or a third place, where souls guilty of lesser sins were to suffer for a time) made answer, that these words of S. Paul were expounded by S. Chrys. and some of their Greek Fathers (which is true) of the wicked in hell, who are said to be saved by fire, inasmuch as they always subsist and continue in those flames, and are not destroyed by them: but this interpretation, as the Latin bishops replied, is not agreeable to the style of the holy Scriptures, in which, to be saved, both in the Greek and Latin, is expressed the salvation and happiness of souls in heaven. It may not be amiss to take notice that the Greeks, before they met with the Latins at Ferrara, of Florence, did not deny the Catholic doctrine of purgatory. They admitted a third place, where souls guilty of lesser sins, suffered for a time, till cleansed from such sins: they allowed that the souls there detained from the vision of God, might be assisted by the prayers of the faithful: they called this purgatory a place of darkness, of sorrow, of punishments, and pains, but they did not allow there a true and material fire, which the Council did not judge necessary to decide and define against them, as appears in the definition of the Council. Conc. Labb tom. xiii. p. 515. Wi. — The fire of which S. Paul here speaks, is the fire of purgatory, according to the Fathers, and all Catholic divines. Calmet. — S. Augustin, expounding Ps. xxxvii. v. 1. gives the proper distinction between this fire of purgatory and that of hell: both are punishments, one temporary, the other eternal; the latter to punish us in God's justice, the former to amend us in his mercy.
13 Every man's work shall be manifest; for the day of the Lord shall declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire; and the fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is.uniuscuiusque opus manifestum erit: dies enim Domini declarabit, quia in igne revelabitur: et uniuscuiusque opus quale sit, ignis probabit.
14 If any man's work abide, which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.Si cuius opus manserit quod superædificavit, mercedem accipiet.
15 If any man's work burn, he shall suffer loss; but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire.Si cuius opus arserit, detrimentum patietur: ipse autem salvus erit: sic tamen quasi per ignem.
16 Know you not, that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?Nescitis quia templum Dei estis, et Spiritus Dei habitat in vobis?Know you not. After the apostle had described the builders who are employed in the spiritual edifice, he then proceeds to speak of the duties of those who are the living temples of Christ. As for you, may brethren, who are the temples of God, preserve yourselves in purity of faith, and innocence of morals. Fly from those false apostles who seek your ruin, and remain steadfast in that faith which you have received from us; (Calmet) that is, the one, holy, Catholic and apostolic faith. What a happiness for the faithful minister to assist in erecting and ornamenting the living temples of God; but what punishment must await the unfaithful minister, who by his own neglect and bad example, helps to ruin and destroy the temples God himself had entrusted to his care! A. — The Spirit of God dwelleth in you, having received the grace of God at your conversion: you are the holy temple of God: But if any one violate, or profane the temple of God, either by false doctrine, or by any grievous offence, he destroys the spiritual edifice, that was built in his soul upon the faith and grace of God. He cannot be said to be built any longer upon the same foundation: and therefore God will destroy such persons: they shall not be saved even by fire, or temporal punishments, but shall be excluded for ever from heaven, and condemned to eternal punishments. Wi.
17 But if any man violate the temple of God, him shall God destroy. For the temple of God is holy, which you are.Si quis autem templum Dei violaverit, disperdet illum Deus. Templum enim Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos.
18 Let no man deceive himself: if any man among you seem to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise.Nemo se seducat: si quis videtur inter vos sapiens esse in hoc sæculo, stultus fiat ut sit sapiens.Let no man deceive himself. He next precautions them against themselves, and admonishes them to be upon their guard against curiosity, presumption, and self-love, and tells them to undervalue all other sciences, when put in competition with the science of salvation, the knowledge of the gospel. It hence appears, that some of the Corinthians were renowned for that human eloquence which the world so much esteems, and accordingly the apostle discovers to them the danger to which they are exposing themselves, by pursuing their present line of conduct. Calmet. — If any man among you seem to be wise in this world. He hints at some new teachers among them, (not at Apollo) who to gain the esteem of men, had introduced errors from profane philosophy, or the false principles of human wisdom, which, as he had told them before, was folly in the sight of God. He therefore tells such persons, that to become truly wise, they must become fools, by returning to the simplicity of the gospel-doctrine. Wi. — Let no man. That is, let no man say, I am for Paul, I am for Apollo. This language will introduce into the Church of God those various sects that existed amongst the philosophers, who were distinguished by the title of Platonics, Stoics, Peripatetic, and so on. Grotius.
19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written: I will catch the wise in their own craftiness.Sapientia enim huius mundi, stultitia est apud Deum. Scriptum est enim: Comprehendam sapientes in astutia eorum.
20 And again: The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.Et iterum: Dominus novit cogitationes sapientium quoniam vanæ sunt.
21 Let no man therefore glory in men.Nemo itaque glorietur in hominibus.
22 For all things are yours, whether it be Paul, or Apollo, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to some; for all are yours;Omnia enim vestra sunt, sive Paulus, sive Apollo, sive Cephas, sive mundus, sive vita, sive mors, sive præsentia, sive futura: omnia enim vestra sunt:All things are yours. Are ordained for your good. For this end, I, Apollo, and Cephas have been sent to promote your salvation. The world and all things in it are allowed you, are yours, that by making good use of them, you may save your souls: that death may be to you a passage to a happy eternity, that the things to come may be your eternal reward. — You are Christ's, you belong to him who hath redeemed you, and sanctified you by his grace: and Christ is God's, Christ as man, who being the Son of God, was made also man, and sent to make known the glory of God, his divine perfections of mercy, justice, &c.
23 And you are Christ's; and Christ is God's.vos autem Christi: Christus autem Dei.

Footnotes: 1 Corinthians 3

1 Corinthians 3:15

1 And I, brethren, could not speak to you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal. As unto little ones in Christ.Et ego, fratres, non potui vobis loqui quasi spiritualibus, sed quasi carnalibus. Tamquam parvulis in Christo,
2 I gave you milk to drink, not meat; for you were not able as yet. But neither indeed are you now able; for you are yet carnal.lac vobis potum dedi, non escam: nondum enim poteratis: sed nec nunc quidem potestis: adhuc enim carnales estis.
3 For, whereas there is among you envying and contention, are you not carnal, and walk according to man?Cum enim sit inter vos zelus, et contentio: nonne carnales estis, et secundum hominem ambulatis?And walk according to man? As carnal and sensual men, as long as there are jealousies and divisions among you. Wi.
4 For while one saith, I indeed am of Paul; and another, I am of Apollo; are you not men? What then is Apollo, and what is Paul?Cum enim quis dicat: Ego quidem sum Pauli. Alius autem: Ego Apollo: nonne homines estis? Quid igitur est Apollo? quid vero Paulus?
5 The ministers of him whom you have believed; and to every one as the Lord hath given.Ministri eius, cui credidistis, ut unicuique sicut Dominus dedit.
6 I have planted, Apollo watered, but God gave the increase.Ego plantavi, Apollo rigavit: sed Deus incrementum dedit.
7 Therefore, neither he that planteth is any thing, nor he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase.Itaque neque qui plantat est aliquid, neque qui rigat: sed, qui incrementum dat, Deus.That planteth you by your first conversion. Apollo watered you by preaching the same truths. — He that planteth and watered, are one, aim at one and the same end. Wi. — According to his own labour. God does not recompense his servants according to the success of their labours, because their success depends upon him alone; but he recompenses them according to their sufferings and diligence in his service; for, whilst he crowns the labour of his apostles with success, he crowns his own work. S. Chrys. — This text most evidently proves that good works proceeding from grace are meritorious, and that the rewards in heaven are different, according as God sees just to appropriate them. The Greek word here employed is μισθος , (merces) or wages. See 1 Tim. v. 18. Apoc. xxii. 12. Matt. xvi. 27. It is by our union with Jesus Christ that our actions, of themselves without value or merit, become gold, silver, and precious stones. A.
8 Now he that planteth, and he that watereth, are one. And every man shall receive his own reward, according to his own labour.Qui autem plantat, et qui rigat, unum sunt. Unusquisque autem propriam mercedem accipiet secundum suum laborem.
9 For we are God's coadjutors: you are God's husbandry; you are God's building.Dei enim sumus adiutores: Dei agricultura estis, Dei ædificatio estis.We are God's coadjutors, labouring in his service, as he hath employed us. — You are God's husbandry, the soil, where virtues are to be planted. You are God's building, the edifice, the house, or even the temple of God; we are employed as builders under God. Wi.
10 According to the grace of God that is given to me, as a wise architect, I have laid the foundation; and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.Secundum gratiam Dei, quæ data est mihi, ut sapiens architectus fundamentum posui: alius autem superædificat. Unusquisque autem videat quomodo superædificet.I have laid the foundation well, as a wise architect, not of myself, but according to the grace of God, and the gifts he bestowed upon me: and another, or several others, build upon it, continue the building. — But let every man take heed how he buildeth, and that it be always upon the same foundation, which is Christ Jesus, his faith, and his doctrine. Wi.
11 For other foundation no man can lay, but that which is laid; which is Christ Jesus.Fundamentum enim aliud nemo potest ponere præter id, quod positum est, quod est Christus Iesus.
12 Now if any man build upon this foundation, gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble:Si quis autem superædificat super fundamentum hoc, aurum, argentum, lapides pretiosos, ligna, fœnum, stipulam,Now if any man build, &c. This is a hard place, says S. Aug. l. de fid. & Oper. c. xvi. tom. 6. p. 180. The interpreters are divided, as to the explication and application of this metaphorical comparison, contained in these four verses. S. Paul speaks of a building, where it is evident, says S. Aug. that the foundation is Christ, or the faith of Christ, and his faith working by charity. The difficulties are 1. Who are the builders. 2. What is meant by gold, silver, precious stones, and what by wood, hay, stubble. 3. What is meant by the day of the Lord. 4. What by fire, how every one's work shall be tried, and how some shall be saved by fire. As to the first, by the builders, as S. Paul had before called himself the first architect, who had laid the foundation of the faith of Christ among the Corinthians, interpreters commonly understand those doctors and preachers who there succeeded S. Paul: but as it is also said, that every man's works shall be made manifest, S. Aug. and others understand not the preachers only, but all the faithful. As to the second difficulty, if by the builders we understand the preachers of the gospel, then by gold, silver, &c., is to be understood, good, sound, and profitable doctrine; and by wood, hay, stubble, a mixture of vain knowledge, empty flourishes, unprofitable discourses; but if all the faithful are builders, they whose actions are pure, lay gold upon the foundation; but if their actions are mixed with imperfections, venial failings, and lesser sins, these are represented by wood, hay, stubble, &c. 3. By the day of the Lord, is commonly understood either the day of general judgment, or the particular judgment, when every one is judged at his death, which sentence shall be confirmed again at the last day. 4. As to fire, which is mentioned thrice, if we consider what S. Paul says here of fire, he seems to use it in different significations, as he many times does other words. First, he tells us, (v. 13.) that the day of the Lord . . . shall be revealed; or, as it is in the Greek, is revealed in, or by fire; where, by fire, is commonly understood the just and severe judgments of God, represented by the metaphor of fire. Secondly, he tells us in the same verse, that fire shall try every one's work, of what sort it is. This may be again taken for the examining and trying fire of God's judgments: and may be applied to the builders, whether preachers only or all the faithful. Thirdly, he tells us, (v. 14. and 15.) that some men's works abide the fire of God's judgments, they deserve no punishment, they are like pure gold, which receives no prejudice from the fire: but some men's works burn, the superstructure, which they built upon the faith of Christ, besides gold, silver, precious stones, had also a mixture of wood, hay, stubble, which could not stand the trial of fire, which met with combustible matter, that deserved to be burnt. Every such man shall suffer a loss, when his works are burnt, but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire. Here the apostle speaks of fire in a more ample signification: of a fire which shall not only try, and examine, but also burn, and punish the builders, who notwithstanding shall also, after a time, escape from the fire, and be saved by fire, and in the day of the Lord, that is, after life (for the time of this life is the day of men). Divers of the ancient fathers, as well as later interpreters, from these words, prove the Catholic doctrine of a purgatory, that is, that many Christians, who die guilty, not of heinous or mortal sins, but of lesser, and what are called venial sins, or to whom a temporal punishment for the sins they have committed, still remains due, before they can be admitted to a reward in heaven, (into which nothing defiled or unclean can enter ) must suffer some punishments for a time, in some place, which is called Purgatory, and in such a manner, as is agreeable to the divine justice, before their reward in heaven. These words of the apostle, the Latin Fathers in the Council of Florence[1] brought against the Greeks to prove purgatory, to which the Greeks (who did not deny a purgatory, or a third place, where souls guilty of lesser sins were to suffer for a time) made answer, that these words of S. Paul were expounded by S. Chrys. and some of their Greek Fathers (which is true) of the wicked in hell, who are said to be saved by fire, inasmuch as they always subsist and continue in those flames, and are not destroyed by them: but this interpretation, as the Latin bishops replied, is not agreeable to the style of the holy Scriptures, in which, to be saved, both in the Greek and Latin, is expressed the salvation and happiness of souls in heaven. It may not be amiss to take notice that the Greeks, before they met with the Latins at Ferrara, of Florence, did not deny the Catholic doctrine of purgatory. They admitted a third place, where souls guilty of lesser sins, suffered for a time, till cleansed from such sins: they allowed that the souls there detained from the vision of God, might be assisted by the prayers of the faithful: they called this purgatory a place of darkness, of sorrow, of punishments, and pains, but they did not allow there a true and material fire, which the Council did not judge necessary to decide and define against them, as appears in the definition of the Council. Conc. Labb tom. xiii. p. 515. Wi. — The fire of which S. Paul here speaks, is the fire of purgatory, according to the Fathers, and all Catholic divines. Calmet. — S. Augustin, expounding Ps. xxxvii. v. 1. gives the proper distinction between this fire of purgatory and that of hell: both are punishments, one temporary, the other eternal; the latter to punish us in God's justice, the former to amend us in his mercy.
13 Every man's work shall be manifest; for the day of the Lord shall declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire; and the fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is.uniuscuiusque opus manifestum erit: dies enim Domini declarabit, quia in igne revelabitur: et uniuscuiusque opus quale sit, ignis probabit.
14 If any man's work abide, which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.Si cuius opus manserit quod superædificavit, mercedem accipiet.
15 If any man's work burn, he shall suffer loss; but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire.Si cuius opus arserit, detrimentum patietur: ipse autem salvus erit: sic tamen quasi per ignem.
16 Know you not, that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?Nescitis quia templum Dei estis, et Spiritus Dei habitat in vobis?Know you not. After the apostle had described the builders who are employed in the spiritual edifice, he then proceeds to speak of the duties of those who are the living temples of Christ. As for you, may brethren, who are the temples of God, preserve yourselves in purity of faith, and innocence of morals. Fly from those false apostles who seek your ruin, and remain steadfast in that faith which you have received from us; (Calmet) that is, the one, holy, Catholic and apostolic faith. What a happiness for the faithful minister to assist in erecting and ornamenting the living temples of God; but what punishment must await the unfaithful minister, who by his own neglect and bad example, helps to ruin and destroy the temples God himself had entrusted to his care! A. — The Spirit of God dwelleth in you, having received the grace of God at your conversion: you are the holy temple of God: But if any one violate, or profane the temple of God, either by false doctrine, or by any grievous offence, he destroys the spiritual edifice, that was built in his soul upon the faith and grace of God. He cannot be said to be built any longer upon the same foundation: and therefore God will destroy such persons: they shall not be saved even by fire, or temporal punishments, but shall be excluded for ever from heaven, and condemned to eternal punishments. Wi.
17 But if any man violate the temple of God, him shall God destroy. For the temple of God is holy, which you are.Si quis autem templum Dei violaverit, disperdet illum Deus. Templum enim Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos.
18 Let no man deceive himself: if any man among you seem to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise.Nemo se seducat: si quis videtur inter vos sapiens esse in hoc sæculo, stultus fiat ut sit sapiens.Let no man deceive himself. He next precautions them against themselves, and admonishes them to be upon their guard against curiosity, presumption, and self-love, and tells them to undervalue all other sciences, when put in competition with the science of salvation, the knowledge of the gospel. It hence appears, that some of the Corinthians were renowned for that human eloquence which the world so much esteems, and accordingly the apostle discovers to them the danger to which they are exposing themselves, by pursuing their present line of conduct. Calmet. — If any man among you seem to be wise in this world. He hints at some new teachers among them, (not at Apollo) who to gain the esteem of men, had introduced errors from profane philosophy, or the false principles of human wisdom, which, as he had told them before, was folly in the sight of God. He therefore tells such persons, that to become truly wise, they must become fools, by returning to the simplicity of the gospel-doctrine. Wi. — Let no man. That is, let no man say, I am for Paul, I am for Apollo. This language will introduce into the Church of God those various sects that existed amongst the philosophers, who were distinguished by the title of Platonics, Stoics, Peripatetic, and so on. Grotius.
19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written: I will catch the wise in their own craftiness.Sapientia enim huius mundi, stultitia est apud Deum. Scriptum est enim: Comprehendam sapientes in astutia eorum.
20 And again: The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.Et iterum: Dominus novit cogitationes sapientium quoniam vanæ sunt.
21 Let no man therefore glory in men.Nemo itaque glorietur in hominibus.
22 For all things are yours, whether it be Paul, or Apollo, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to some; for all are yours;Omnia enim vestra sunt, sive Paulus, sive Apollo, sive Cephas, sive mundus, sive vita, sive mors, sive præsentia, sive futura: omnia enim vestra sunt:All things are yours. Are ordained for your good. For this end, I, Apollo, and Cephas have been sent to promote your salvation. The world and all things in it are allowed you, are yours, that by making good use of them, you may save your souls: that death may be to you a passage to a happy eternity, that the things to come may be your eternal reward. — You are Christ's, you belong to him who hath redeemed you, and sanctified you by his grace: and Christ is God's, Christ as man, who being the Son of God, was made also man, and sent to make known the glory of God, his divine perfections of mercy, justice, &c.
23 And you are Christ's; and Christ is God's.vos autem Christi: Christus autem Dei.

Footnotes: 1 Corinthians 3

Colossians 1:24

1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, and Timothy, a brother,Paulus Apostolus Iesu Christi per voluntatem Dei, et Timotheus frater:
2 To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ Jesus, who are at Colossa.eis, qui sunt Colossis, sanctis, et fidelibus fratribus in Christo Iesu.
3 Grace be to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. We give thanks to God, and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you.Gratia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre nostro, et Domino Iesu Christo. Gratias agimus Deo, et Patri Domini nostri Iesu Christi semper pro vobis orantes:
4 Hearing your faith in Christ Jesus, and the love which you have towards all the saints.audientes fidem vestram in Christo Iesu, et dilectionem, quam habetis in sanctos omnes
5 For the hope that is laid up for you in heaven, which you have heard in the word of the truth of the gospel,propter spem, quæ reposita est vobis in cælis: quam audistis in verbo veritatis Evangelii:
6 Which is come unto you, as also it is in the whole world, and bringeth forth fruit and groweth, even as it doth in you, since the day you heard and knew the grace of God in truth.quod pervenit ad vos, sicut et in universo mundo est, et fructificat, et crescit sicut in vobis, ex ea die, qua audistis, et cognovistis gratiam Dei in veritate,In the whole world; i.e. a great part of it. Wi. — This epistle was written in the year 62, at which time the gospel had spread itself through the whole world by the preaching not only of the apostles, but of their disciples, and by the noise which this new religion made. Calmet. — S. Austin sheweth with S. Paul, that the Church and Christ's gospel was to grow daily, and to spread all over the world; which cannot stand with what heretics allude of the failure of the Church, nor with their own obscure conventicles. ep. lxxx. ad finem.
7 As you learned of Epaphras, our most beloved fellow servant, who is for you a faithful minister of Christ Jesus;sicut didicistis ab Epaphra charissimo conservo nostro, qui est fidelis pro vobis minister Christi Iesu,Of Epaphras, who seems to have been their first apostle, and their bishop. Wi.
8 Who also hath manifested to us your love in the spirit.qui etiam manifestavit nobis dilectionem vestram in spiritu:Your love. Your charity for all men, founded on the love of God. Others understand it of the affection which they had for S. Paul. S. Chrys.
9 Therefore we also, from the day that we heard it, cease not to pray for you, and to beg that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will, in all wisdom, and spiritual understanding:ideo et nos ex qua die audivimus, non cessamus pro vobis orantes, et postulantes ut impleamini agnitione voluntatis eius, in omni sapientia et intellectu spiritali:In all wisdom. He begins by an admonition against false teachers, who it is likely, says S. Chrys. with their philosophical notions mixed errors and fables. Wi.
10 That you may walk worthy of God, in all things pleasing; being fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God:ut ambuletis digne Deo per omnia placentes: in omni opere bono fructificantes, et crescentes in scientia Dei:Worthy of God: αξιως του κυριου . So S. Ambrose and the Greek doctors; or thus, worthily, pleasing God, and this not by faith only, but fruitful in every good work. Ibid. — God, in [1] all things pleasing him. This is the construction of the Latin by the Greek. Wi.
11 Strengthened with all might, according to the power of his glory, in all patience and longsuffering with joy,in omni virtute confortati secundum potentiam claritatis eius in omni patientia, et longanimitate cum gaudio
12 Giving thanks to God the Father, who hath made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of the saints in light:gratias agentes Deo Patri, qui dignos nos fecit in partem sortis sanctorum in lumine:
13 Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of the Son of his love,qui eripuit nos de potestate tenebrarum, et transtulit in regnum filii dilectionis suæ,
14 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the remission of sins;in quo habemus redemptionem per sanguinem eius, remissionem peccatorum:It is through the blood of Christ, and not by the law of Moses, that we are freed from the power of death. If the law could have saved us, the coming of Christ would have been useless. See then, he says, if it be proper to engage under a law which is so inefficacious. Calmet. — From this verse and from v. 12, et alibi passim, we are taught that we are not only by imputation made partakers of Christ's benefits, but are by his grace made worthy thereof, and deserve our salvation condignly, ex condigno. B.
15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:qui est imago Dei invisibilis, primogenitus omnis creaturæ:The first [2] born of every creature. S. Chrys. takes notice against the Arians, that the apostle calls Christ the first-begotten, or first-born, not the first created, because he was not created at all. And the sense is, that he was before all creatures, proceeding from all eternity from the Father; though some expound the words of Christ as man, and that he was greater in dignity. See Rom. viii. 29. Wi.
16 For in him were all things created in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones, or dominations, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him and in him.quoniam in ipso condita sunt universa in cælis, et in terra, visibilia, et invisibilia, sive throni, sive dominationes, sive principatus, sive potestates: omnia per ipsum, et in ipso creata sunt:Thrones, &c. are commonly understood to refer to the celestial hierarchy of Angels, though as to their particular rank, &c. nothing certain is known. We may here observe, that the Holy Spirit proportions itself and speaks according to our ideas of a temporal kingdom, in which one authority is subject to another. In the same manner the Angels seem subordinate to one another. S. Dionysius in Calmet. — All things were created by him, and in him, and [3] consist in him. If all things that are were made by him, he himself was not made. And his divine power is also signified, when it is said all things consist or are preserved by him. Wi.
17 And he is before all, and by him all things consist.et ipse est ante omnes, et omnia in ipso constant.
18 And he is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he may hold the primacy:Et ipse est caput corporis Ecclesiæ, qui est principium, primogenitus ex mortuis: ut sit in omnibus ipse primatum tenens.He is the head of the body, the church. He now speaks of what applies to Christ as man. — The first-born from the dead; i.e. the first that rose to an immortal life. Wi.
19 Because in him, it hath well pleased the Father, that all fullness should dwell;quia in ipso complacuit, omnem plenitudinem inhabitare:In him it was pleasing, that all fulness should dwell. [4] The greatest plenitude of graces was conferred on him as man, and from him, as he was our head, derived to all the members of his Church. The Prot. translation, followed by Mr. N. by way of explanation adds, it hath pleased the Father; but, as Dr. Wells observes in his paraphrase, there is no reason to restrain it to the Father, seeing the work of the incarnation, and the blessings by it conferred on all mankind, are equally the work of the blessed Trinity, though the Second Person only was joined to our nature. Wi.
20 And through him to reconcile all things unto himself, making peace through the blood of his cross, both as to the things that are on earth, and the things that are in heaven.et per eum reconciliare omnia in ipsum, pacificans per sanguinem crucis eius, sive quæ in terris, sive quæ in cælis sunt.To reconcile all things unto himself, . . . through the blood of his cross, (i.e. which Christ shed on the cross) both as to the things on earth, and . . . in heaven: not that Christ died for the Angels, but, says S. Chrys. the Angels were in a manner at war with men, with sinners, as they stood for the cause and glory of God; but Christ put an end to this enmity, by restoring men to his favour. Wi. — In heaven. Not by pardoning the wicked angels did Christ reconcile the things in heaven, but by reconciling good Angels to man, who were enemies to him before the birth of Christ. S. Austin.
21 And you, whereas you were some time alienated and enemies in mind in evil works:Et vos cum essetis aliquando alienati, et inimici sensu in operibus malis:
22 Yet now he hath reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and unspotted, and blameless before him:nunc autem reconciliavit in corpore carnis eius per mortem, exhibere vos sanctos, et immaculatos, et irreprehensibiles coram ipso:
23 If so ye continue in the faith, grounded and settled, and immoveable from the hope of the gospel which you have heard, which is preached in all the creation that is under heaven, whereof I Paul am made a minister.si tamen permanetis in fide fundati, et stabiles, et immobiles a spe Evangelii, quod audistis, quod prædicatum est in universa creatura, quæ sub cælo est, cuius factus sum ego Paulus minister.
24 Who now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up those things that are wanting of the sufferings of Christ, in my flesh, for his body, which is the church:Qui nunc gaudeo in passionibus pro vobis, et adimpleo ea, quæ desunt passionem Christi, in carne mea pro corpore eius, quod est Ecclesia:And fill up those things . . . in my flesh for his body, which is the church. [5] Nothing was wanting in the sufferings or merits of Christ, for a sufficient and superabundant redemption of mankind, and therefore he adds, for his body, which is the church, that his sufferings were wanting, and are to be endured by the example of Christ by the faithful, who are members of a crucified head. See S. Chrys. and S. Aug. Wi. — Wanting. There is no want in the sufferings of Christ himself as head; but many sufferings are still wanting, or are still to come in his body, the Church, and his members, the faithful. Ch. — S. Chrysostom here observes that Jesus Christ loves us so much, that he is not content merely to suffer in his own person, but he wishes also to suffer in his members; and thus we fill up what is wanting of the sufferings of Christ. S. Chrys. — The wisdom, the will, the justice of Jesus Christ, requireth and ordaineth that his body and members should be companions of his sufferings, as they expect to be companions of his glory; that so suffering with him, and after his example, they may apply to their own wants and to the necessities of others the merits and satisfaction of Jesus Christ, which application is what is wanting, and what we are permitted to supply by the sacraments and sacrifice of the new law.
25 Whereof I am made a minister according to the dispensation of God, which is given me towards you, that I may fulfill the word of God:cuius factus sum ego minister secundum dispensationem Dei, quæ data est mihi in vos, ut impleam verbum Dei:
26 The mystery which hath been hidden from ages and generations, but now is manifested to his saints,mysterium, quod absconditum fuit a sæculis, et generationibus, nunc autem manifestatum est sanctis eius,The mystery of Christ's incarnation, which hath been hidden, &c. See Ephes. i. 12. and v. 4, &c. Wi.
27 To whom God would make known the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ, in you the hope of glory.quibus voluit Deus notas facere divitias gloriæ sacramenti huius in Gentibus, quod est Christus, in vobis spes gloriæ,
28 Whom we preach, admonishing every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus.quem nos annunciamus, corripientes omnem hominem, et docentes omnem hominem, in omni sapientia, ut exhibeamus omnem hominem perfectum in Christo Iesu.
29 Wherein also I labour, striving according to his working which he worketh in me in power.in quo et laboro, certando secundum operationem eius, quam operatur in me in virtute.

Footnotes: Colossians 1

1 Peter 1:6-7

1 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers dispersed through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, elect,Petrus Apostolus Iesu Christi, electis advenis dispersionis Ponti, Galatiæ, Cappadociæ, Asiæ, et Bithyniæ,Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers dispersed. Lit. of the dispersion; i.e. to the Jews or Gentiles now converted, who lived dispersed in those countries, chosen or elected[1] according to the foreknowledge and eternal decrees of God unto the sanctification of the spirit. Wi. — Asia is taken for one of the four quarters of the globe, or for Asia Minor, or for that province of Asia Minor of which Ephesus is the capital. It is in this latter sense it appears here to be understood, since Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia are also contained in the provinces of Asia Minor. V.
2 According to the foreknowledge of God the Father, unto the sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you and peace be multiplied.secundum præscientiam Dei Patris, in sanctificationem Spiritus, in obedientiam, et aspersionem sanguinis Iesu Christi: Gratia vobis, et pax multiplicetur.Unto the obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ; i.e. to be saved by the merits of his death and passion. Wi. — All the three divine Persons conspire in the salvation of the elect. The Father as principle of their election, by his eternal prescience; the Son as victim for their sins, and the source of all merit; the Holy Ghost as the spirit of adoption and love, animating and sanctifying them, and leading them to glory.
3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to his great mercy hath regenerated us unto a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,Benedictus Deus et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi, qui secundum misericordiam suam magnam regeneravit nos in spem vivam, per resurrectionem Iesu Christi ex mortuis,
4 Unto an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that can not fade, reserved in heaven for you,in hereditatem incorruptibilem, et incontaminatam, et immarcescibilem, conservatam in cælis in vobis,Reserved in heaven for you. Lit. in you; that is, it is also in you by reason of that lively faith and hope, which is in you, of enjoying Christ. Wi.
5 Who, by the power of God, are kept by faith unto salvation, ready to be revealed in the last time.qui in virtute Dei custodimini per fidem in salutem, paratam revelari in tempore novissimo.
6 Wherein you shall greatly rejoice, if now you must be for a little time made sorrowful in divers temptations:In quo exultabis, modicum nunc si oportet contristari in variis tentationibus:
7 That the trial of your faith (much more precious than gold which is tried by the fire) may be found unto praise and glory and honour at the appearing of Jesus Christ:ut probatio vestræ fidei multo pretiosior auro (quod per ignem probatur) inveniatur in laudem, et gloriam, et honorem in revelatione Iesu Christi:At the appearing of Jesus Christ. Lit. in the revelation; i.e. when he shall be revealed, manifested, and appear at the day of judgment. Wi.
8 Whom having not seen, you love: in whom also now, though you see him not, you believe: and believing shall rejoice with joy unspeakable and glorified;quem cum non videritis, diligitis: in quem nunc quoque non videntes creditis: credentes autem exultabitis lætitia inenarrabili, et glorificata:
9 Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.reportantes finem fidei vestræ, salutem animarum.
10 Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and diligently searched, who prophesied of the grace to come in you.De qua salute exquisierunt, atque scrutati sunt prophetæ, qui de futura in vobis gratia prophetaverunt:
11 Searching what or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ in them did signify: when it foretold those sufferings that are in Christ, and the glories that should follow:scrutantes in quod, vel quale tempus significaret in eis Spiritus Christi: prænuncians eas quæ in Christo sunt passiones, et posteriores glorias:Searching into what time, or manner of time. The ancient prophets with longing and ardent desires, obtained to know of the Holy Ghost, the spirit of Christ, the time and the glory that followed those sufferings, by Christ's resurrection and ascension. All these were revealed to them, and they saw that they ministered things to you, not to themselves; that is, that these things they were ministers of, in prophesying about them, were not to happen in their time, but are not come to pass, as they have been preached to you. Wi.
12 To whom it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you they ministered those things which are now declared to you by them that have preached the gospel to you, the Holy Ghost being sent down from heaven, on whom the angels desire to look.quibus revelatum est quia non sibimetipsis, vobis autem ministrabant ea, quæ nunc nunciata sunt vobis per eos, qui evangelizaverunt vobis, Spiritu sancto misso de cælo, in quem desiderant Angeli prospicere.The Holy Ghost being sent down from heaven, on whom the Angels desire to look. [2] This place is differently expounded. Some refer these words, on whom the Angels desire to look, to Jesus Christ, who was named in the foregoing verse; some to the Holy Ghost, who, being one God with the Father and the Son, the Angels are happy in seeing and loving him. See Estius and the Greek text. Wi.
13 Wherefore having the loins of your mind girt up, being sober, trust perfectly in the grace which is offered you in the revelation of Jesus Christ,Propter quod succincti lumbos mentis vestræ, sobrii perfecte sperate in eam, quæ offertur vobis, gratiam, in revelationem Iesu Christi:The loins of your mind girded. It is a metaphor, to signify they must live in such a manner as to be always prepared for heaven, as persons used to gird their garments about them, when about to walk or run, or to undertake any labour. Wi.
14 As children of obedience, not fashioned according to the former desires of your ignorance:quasi filii obedientiæ, non configurati prioribus ignorantiæ vestræ desideriis:As children of obedience; i.e. as obedient children. Wi.
15 But according to him that hath called you, who is holy, be you also in all manner of conversation holy:sed secundum eum, qui vocavit vos, Sanctum: et ipsi in omni conversatione sancti sitis:
16 Because it is written: You shall be holy, for I am holy.quoniam scriptum est: Sancti eritis, quoniam ego Sanctus sum.
17 And if you invoke as Father him who, without respect of persons, judgeth according to every one's work: converse in fear during the time of your sojourning here.Et si patrem invocatis eum, qui sine acceptione personarum iudicat secundum uniuscuiusque opus, in timore incolatus vestri tempore conversamini.
18 Knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things as gold or silver, from your vain conversation of the tradition of your fathers:Scientes quod non corruptibilibus auro, vel argento redempti estis de vana vestra conversatione paternæ traditionis:From your vain conversation of the tradition of your fathers. S. Peter teacheth what S. Paul repeats in many places, that it was in vain for them to hope to be saved by the ceremonies and precepts of the former law, to which their forefathers had added many unnecessary and groundless traditions. They could only hope for salvation by believing in Christ, by the price of whose precious blood they were redeemed from their sins, as they had heard by the word of the gospel preached to them. His doctrine is the same with that of S. Paul, of S. James, of S. John, and of the other apostles, that to be saved it is not enough to have faith or hope in Christ, but it must be a faith joined and working by charity, obeying the law of Christ in the spirit of charity with a sincere and brotherly love of every one, without setting our hearts upon the vanities and corruptible things of this world, remembering that all flesh is as grass, or the flowers of the field, which wither and pass away in a very short time. Thus presently vanish all riches, honours, pleasures, and all the glory of this life, but the word of God and his promises will bring us to happiness which will last for ever. Wi.
19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb unspotted and undefiled,sed pretioso sanguine quasi agni immaculati Christi, et incontaminati:
20 Foreknown indeed before the foundation of the world, but manifested in the last times for you,præcogniti quidem ante mundi constitutionem, manifestati autem novissimis temporibus propter vos,
21 Who through him are faithful in God, who raised him up from the dead, and hath given him glory, that your faith and hope might be in God.qui per ipsum fideles estis in Deo, qui suscitavit eum a mortuis, et dedit ei gloriam, ut fides vestra, et spes esset in Deo:
22 Purifying your souls in the obedience of charity, with a brotherly love, from a sincere heart love one another earnestly:Animas vestras castificantes in obedientia charitatis, in fraternitatis amore, simplici ex corde invicem diligite attentius:
23 Being born again not of corruptible seed, but incorruptible, by the word of God who liveth and remaineth for ever.renati non ex semine corruptibili, sed incorruptibili per verbum Dei vivi, et permanentis in æternum:Thus this new birth, common to you all, should form between you an union much more stable and solid than that formed in you by the ties of blood. V.
24 For all flesh is as grass; and all the glory thereof as the flower of grass. The grass is withered, and the flower thereof is fallen away.quia omnis caro ut fœnum: et omnis gloria eius tamquam flos fœni: exaruit fœnum, et flos eius decidit.
25 But the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel hath been preached unto you.Verbum autem Domini manet in æternum. hoc est autem verbum, quod evangelizatum est in vos.

Footnotes: 1 Peter 1

Jude 1:23

1 Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James: to them that are beloved in God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called.Iudas Iesu Christi servus, frater autem Iacobi, his, qui sunt in Deo Patre dilectis, et Christo Iesu conservatis, et vocatis.And brother of James, the apostle and bishop of Jerusalem; he might have added, the brother of Christ, as he and the same S. James are so styled; i.e. cousin germans. — And called. That is, to all converted to the faith of Christ, whether they were Jews or Gentiles. Wi.
2 Mercy unto you, and peace, and charity be fulfilled.Misericordia vobis, et pax, et charitas adimpleatur.
3 Dearly beloved, taking all care to write unto you concerning your common salvation, I was under a necessity to write unto you: to beseech you to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints.Charissimi, omnem solicitudinem faciens scribendi vobis de communi vestra salute, necesse habui scribere vobis: deprecans supercertari semel traditæ sanctis fidei.Being very solicitous to discharge my duty of an apostle, in writing and instructing you in the common concern of your salvation, I judge it necessary at present to write this letter, to exhort you to contend earnestly, [1] and stand firm in the Christian faith. Wi.
4 For certain men are secretly entered in, (who were written of long ago unto this judgment,) ungodly men, turning the grace of our Lord God into riotousness, and denying the only sovereign Ruler, and our Lord Jesus Christ.Subintroierunt enim quidam homines (qui olim præscripti sunt in hoc iudicium) impii, Dei nostri gratiam transferentes in luxuriam, et solum Dominatorem, et Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum negantes.For there have crept in some men, impious men, (who were of old[2] foretold that they should fall into condemnation, by their own obdurate malice) the disciples of Simon, and the Nicolaites, who endeavour to turn the grace of our God, and the Christian liberty into all manner of infamous[3] lasciviousness; who, by their ridiculous fables, deny the only sovereign Ruler, and our Lord Jesus Christ. Some by the only sovereign, or master of all things, understand God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, who, according to his divine Person, is the same God, Master, and Lord with him, and the Holy Ghost. But many interpreters think the true sense and construction is this, denying Jesus Christ, our only sovereign master, [4] and Lord. The reasons for this exposition are: 1. That this verse of S. Jude seems correspondent to that of S. Peter, (2 Ep. ii. 1.) where he says of the same heretics, that they deny the Lord who bought them, or deny him that bought them, to be Lord. 2. Because the disciples of Simon denied Jesus Christ to be truly Lord God, but denied not this of the Father. 3. Because the Greek text seems to denote one and the same to be sovereign master and the Lord. See Cornel. a Lapide. Wi.
5 I will therefore admonish you, though ye once knew all things, that Jesus, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, did afterwards destroy them that believed not:Commonere autem vos volo, scientes semel omnia, quoniam Iesus populum de terra Ægypti salvans, secundo eos, qui non crediderunt, perdidit:But I will admonish you, that once [5] (that is, some time ago, when you were converted and instructed) knew all things that were necessary as to the Christian faith, I will then put you in mind of the judgments and chastisements that such sinners may expect, that Jesus, [6] not as man, but as God, having saved the people of Israel from their slavery in Egypt, did afterwards on several occasions punish and destroy those among them, who believed not; who were rebellious and incredulous to his promises. Wi. — The Greek, and after it the Protestant version, have the Lord saved; the Vulgate has Jesus, which signifies Saviour, and may in this place be understood of the Word, who from his incarnation took the name of Jesus. V. — Menochius says it means Josue, who is thus styled by the seventy interpreters.
6 And the angels who kept not their principality, but forsook their own habitation, he hath reserved under darkness in everlasting chains, unto the judgment of the great day.Angelos vero, qui non servaverunt suum principatum, sed dereliquerunt suum domicilium, in iudicium magni diei, vinculis æternis sub caligine reservavit.Principality. That is, the state in which they were first created, their original dignity. Ch. — Having given themselves over to [7] fornication, or to excessive uncleanness. — Going after other flesh, and seeking unnatural lusts, with those of the same sex. Wi. — Impurity punished by fire and sulphur. Fire is a punishment proportioned to the criminal passion of the voluptuous. That of Sodom was most dreadful, but then it was of short duration. There is another fire that will never be extinguished.
7 As Sodom and Gomorrha, and the neighbouring cities, in like manner, having given themselves to fornication, and going after other flesh, were made an example, suffering the punishment of eternal fire.Sicut Sodoma, et Gomorrha, et finitimæ civitates simili modo exfornicatæ, et abeuntes post carnem alteram, factæ sunt exemplum, ignis æterni pœnam sustinentes.
8 In like manner these men also defile the flesh, and despise dominion, and blaspheme majesty.Similiter et hi carnem quidem maculant, dominationem autem spernunt, maiestatem autem blasphemant.In like manner these men (heretics) also defile the flesh with their horrid abominations, despise just dominion, all lawful authority, as well as ecclesiastical as civil; blaspheme majesty, speak ill, and rail both against the majesty of God, and those whom he hath invested with power derived from him. Wi. — Blaspheme, &c. Speak evil of them that are in dignity; and even utter blasphemies against the divine majesty. Ch. — The justice of God generally punishes the pride of heart, by abandoning the body to shameful and humiliating abominations, and this we observe in the chief heresiarchs. Their pride makes them rebel against authority; and when once they have got free of this yoke, every other restraint is laughed at.
9 When Michael the archangel, disputing with the devil, contended about the body of Moses, he durst not bring against him the judgment of railing speech, but said: The Lord command thee.Cum Michael Archangelus cum diabolo disputans altercaretur de Moysi corpore, non est ausus iudicium inferre blasphemiæ: sed dixit: Imperet tibi Dominus.When Michael, &c. We do not find this in any other canonical Scripture, so that S. Jude must either have had it from some tradition among the Jews, or from some writing which he, by the Spirit of God, knew to be true. It is not expressed on what account this dispute or strife was, betwixt S. Michael and the devil, about the body of Moses. The common interpretation is, that S. Michael conveyed the body of Moses out of the way, and from the knowledge of the Israelites, lest they should pay to it some idolatrous worship; whereas the devil, for that end, would have it buried, so that the people might know the place and adore it. See Deut. xxxiv. 6. where it is said, "and no man hath known of his sepulchre until this present day." Wi. — Contended about the body, &c. This contention, which is no where else mentioned in holy writ, was originally known by revelation, and transmitted by tradition. It is thought the occasion of it was, that the devil would have had the body buried in such a place and manner, as to be worshipped by the Jews with divine honours. — Command thee, or, rebuke thee. Ch.
10 But these men blaspheme whatever things they know not: and what things soever they naturally know, like dumb beasts, in these they are corrupted.Hi autem quæcumque quidem ignorant, blasphemant: quæcumque autem naturaliter, tamquam muta animalia, norunt, in his corrumpuntur.These men blaspheme whatsoever things they know not, as it is the custom of false and ignorant teachers: and as to things which they know by their senses, in these they are corrupted, following, like brute beasts, their natural lusts and appetites. Wi.
11 Woe unto them, for they have gone in the way of Cain: and after the error of Balaam they have for reward poured out themselves, and have perished in the contradiction of Core.Væ illis, quia in via Cain abierunt, et errore Balaam mercede effusi sunt, et in contradictione Core perierunt:They have imitated, or gone in the way of Cain, who murdered his brother; and they have a mortal hatred against the faithful. They have imitated Balaam [8] and his covetousness, (see 2 Peter ii. 15.) and Core, (Num. xvi.) who with others opposed Moses; and as these sinners perished, so will they. Wi. — Way, &c. Heretics follow the way of Cain, by murdering the souls of their brethren; the way of Balaam by putting a scandal before the people of God, for their own private ends; and the way of Core or Korah, by their opposition to the church governors of divine appointment. Ch.
12 These are spots in their banquets, feasting together without fear, feeding themselves, clouds without water, which are carried about by winds, trees of the autumn, unfruitful, twice dead, plucked up by the roots,Hi sunt in epulis suis maculæ, convivantes sine timore, semetipsos pascentes, nubes sine aqua, quæ a ventis circumferentur, arbores autumnales, infructuosæ, bis mortuæ, eradicatæ,These are spots in their banquets; (see 2 Pet. ii. 13.) in which they commit unheard of abominations, twice dead, which signifies no more than quite dead, clouds without water, &c. All these metaphors are to represent the corrupt manners of these heretics. Wi.
13 Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own confusion; wandering stars, to whom the storm of darkness is reserved for ever.fluctus feri maris, despumantes suas confusiones, sidera errantia: quibus procella tenebrarum servata est in æternum.
14 Now of these Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied, saying: Behold, the Lord cometh with thousands of his saints,Prophetavit autem et de his septimus ab Adam Enoch, dicens: Ecce venit Dominus in sanctis millibus suisEnoch, &c. Though the ancient writers mention an apocryphal book of Enoch's prophesies, yet S. Jude might know by tradition, or by the Spirit of God, what Enoch truly prophesied concerning God's coming with thousands of his saints, to judge, condemn, and punish the wicked for their impieties and blasphemies. Wi. — Prophesied. This prophecy was either known by tradition, or from some book that is since lost. Ch.
15 To execute judgment upon all, and to reprove all the ungodly for all the works of their ungodliness, whereby they have done ungodly, and of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against God.facere iudicium contra omnes, et arguere omnes impios de omnibus operibus impietatis eorum, quibus impie egerunt, et de omnibus duris, quæ locuti sunt contra Deum peccatores impii.Nothing more terrible than a God avenging in the majesty of his power his own cause. Then the impious libertine, in proportion as he has studied to extinguish in himself and to stifle in others the light of faith, the more shall be confounded and overwhelmed with the glory of God in the day of just retribution.
16 These are murmurers, full of complaints, walking according to their own desires, and their mouth speaketh proud things, admiring persons for gain's sake.Hi sunt murmuratores querulosi, secundum desideria sua ambulantes, et os eorum loquitur superba, mirantes personas quæstus causa.Speaketh proud things, admiring persons for gain's sake. It is a part of the character of these heretics to seem to admire and flatter others when they can gain by it. Wi.
17 But you, my dearly beloved, be mindful of the words which have been spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ,Vos autem charissimi memores estote verborum, quæ prædicta sunt ab Apostolis Domini nostri Iesu Christi,Be mindful, &c. He now exhorts the faithful to remain steadfast in the belief and practice of what they had heard from the apostles, who had also foretold that in after times (lit. in the last time, )[9] there should be false teachers, scoffing and ridiculing all revealed truths, abandoning themselves to their passions and lusts, who separate themselves from the Catholic communion by heresies and schisms; sensual men, [10] carried away, and enslaved by the pleasures of the senses. Wi.
18 Who told you, that in the last time there should come mockers, walking according to their own desires in ungodlinesses.qui dicebant vobis, quoniam in novissimo tempore venient illusores, secundum desideria sua ambulantes in impietatibus.
19 These are they, who separate themselves, sensual men, having not the Spirit.Hi sunt, qui segregant semetipsos, animales, Spiritum non habentes.
20 But you, my beloved, building yourselves upon your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost,Vos autem charissimi superædificantes vosmetipsos sanctissimæ vestræ fidei, in Spiritu sancto orantes,Building yourselves. That is, raising by your actions a spiritual building, founded 1. upon faith; 2. on the love of God; 3. upon hope, whilst you are awaiting for the mercies of God, and the reward of eternal life; 4. joined with the great duty of prayer. Wi.
21 Keep yourselves in the love of God, waiting for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, unto life everlasting.vosmetipsos in dilectione Dei servate, expectantes misericordiam Domini nostri Iesu Christi in vitam æternam.
22 And some indeed reprove, being judged:Et hos quidem arguite iudicatos:And some indeed reprove, being judged. He gives them another instruction to practise charity in endeavouring to convert their neighbour, where they will meet with three sorts of persons. 1. With persons obstinate in their errors and sins, these may be said to be already judged and condemned, they are to be sharply reprehended, reproved, and, if possible, convinced of their errors. 2. As to others, you must endeavour to save them, by snatching them as it were out of the fire, from the ruin they stand in great danger of. 3. You must have compassion on others in great fear, when you see them, through ignorance or frailty, in danger of being drawn into the snares of these heretics; with these you must deal more gently and mildly, with a charitable compassion, hating always, and teaching others to hate the carnal coat, which is defiled, their sensual and corrupt manners, that defile both the soul and body. Wi.
23 But others save, pulling them out of the fire. And on others have mercy, in fear, hating also the spotted garment which is carnal.illos vero salvate, de igne rapientes. Aliis autem miseremini in timore: odientes et eam, quæ carnalis est, maculatam tunicam.
24 Now to him who is able to preserve you without sin, and to present you spotless before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy, in the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ,Ei autem, qui potens est vos conservare sine peccato, et constituere ante conspectum gloriæ suæ immaculatos in exultatione in adventu Domini nostri Iesu Christi.Now to him, &c. S. Jude concludes his epistle with this doxology of praising God, and praying to the only God, our Saviour, which may either signify God the Father, or God as equally agreeing to all the Three Persons, who are equally the cause of Christ's incarnation and man's salvation through Jesus Christ, our Lord, who being God from eternity, took upon him our human nature, that he might become our Redeemer. Wi. — To whom, O Lord, can we give the glory of our salvation, unless to thee, to whom all is due? To whom can we consecrate our hearts, but to him who has redeemed them with his blood, sanctified them by his Spirit, and who is to make them happy by his glory? Reign there, O Lord, as on thy throne, now by thy love; that you may reign there hereafter with glory, magnificence, and sovereignty in heaven.
25 To the only God our Saviour through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory and magnificence, empire and power, before all ages, and now, and for all ages of ages. Amen.Soli Deo Salvatori nostro, per Iesum Christum Dominum nostrum, gloria et magnificentia, imperium et potestas ante omne sæculum, et nunc, et in omnia sæcula sæculorum. Amen.

Footnotes: Jude 1