Romans 1 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel
Clementine Latin Vulgate, Haydock Commentary
|Douay-RheimsDouay-Rheims Bible — The New Testament was published at Rheims, France (1582), the Old Testament at Douay (1609) by exiled English Catholic scholars. Bishop Challoner updated it extensively mid-18th century. The Douay-Rheims served as the English bible for the Catholic world for centuries. This text set is from an approved 1914 U.S. printing.||Clementine Latin VulgateClementine Latin Vulgate Bible — Update to the Latin Vulgate Bible of St. Jerome, a foundational Catholic bible, originally issued under Pope Sixtus V and authoritatively revised by Pope Clement VIII, hence its name. This 1914 printing starts with the original Clementine text and takes into account variations in prior printings as well as correctoria officially issued by the Vatican.||Haydock CommentaryHaydock Catholic Bible Commentary — Originally compiled by Catholic priest and biblical scholar Rev. George Leo Haydock (1774-1849); written with the Douay-Rheims Bible in view.|
|1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,||Paulus, servus Iesu Christi, vocatus Apostolus, segregatus in Evangelium Dei,||Called to be an apostle,  or a called apostle. That is, not only having the name of an apostle, but having his call to this high function, and his mission from God. — Separated unto the gospel of God. He means that he was separated from others, and appointed by the Holy Ghost to preach the gospel, as we read Acts xiii. 2. when the Holy Ghost to those of the Church at Antioch, said, Separate me Saul and Barnabas, for the work unto which I have taken them. Wi.|
|2 Which he had promised before, by his prophets, in the holy scriptures,||quod ante promiserat per Prophetas suos in Scripturis sanctis||Which he had promised before, &c. That is, God before, in the Scriptures, promised the blessings, which are now come by the preaching of the gospel, and that they should come by his Son. Wi.|
|3 Concerning his Son, who was made to him of the seed of David, according to the flesh,||de Filio suo, qui factus est ei ex semine David secundum carnem,||Who was made to him of the seed of David, according to the flesh. The sense is, that God promised, that he who was his true and only Son from eternity, should also become his son, as man; that the same son should be man, as well as God, when the word was made flesh, or when that divine person should be united to our human nature. Thus the same person, who was his only begotten Son from eternity, being made man, and of the seed of David, by his incarnation, was still his Son, both as God, and also as man. Wi. — The Greek text has not the particle ei, (to him) but only του γενομενου εκ σπερματος Δαυιδ . But S. Irenæus, (lib. iii. ch. 18.) S. Ambrose, S. Jerom read, Qui factus est ei. And also S. Aug. in his unfinished exposition of the epistle to the Romans; though before in his book against Faustus, (lib. xi. ch. 14.) he reads it otherwise. Calmet.|
|4 Who was predestinated the Son of God in power, according to the spirit of sanctification, by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead;||qui prædestinatus est Filius Dei in virtute secundum spiritum sanctificationis ex resurrectione mortuorum Iesu Christi Domini nostri:||Who was predestined  the Son of God. The learned bishop of Meaux, Bossuet, in his second Pastoral Instruction, in which he condemned the French translation of Mons. Simon, (p. 127.) takes notice, that according to S. Paul, and the constant doctrine of S. Aug. and S. Thomas, Christ as man, or the human nature of Christ united to his divine person, was predestinated without any precedent merits, by a free and liberal predestination of God's goodness. Wi. — Christ, as man, was predestinated to be the Son of God; and declared to be so (as the apostle here signifies) first by power, that is, by his working stupendous miracles; secondly, by the spirit of sanctification, that is, by his infinite sanctity; thirdly, by his resurrection, or raising himself from the dead. Ch.|
|5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith, in all nations, for his name;||per quem accepimus gratiam, et Apostolatum ad obediendum fidei in omnibus Gentibus pro nomine eius,||By whom, i.e. by this same Jesus Christ, God and man, we, I and the rest of the apostles, have received this grace and apostleship, this mission and commission from him, of preaching his gospel, and teaching his doctrine. — For obedience to the faith in all nations; that is, to bring all nations to the obedience and profession of his new law and doctrine. Wi.|
|6 Among whom are you also the called of Jesus Christ:||in quibus estis et vos vocati Iesu Christi:||Among whom are you also the called of Jesus. That is, you also are a part of those, who by his mercy, are called to this faith and belief in him. All beginning from those words in the third verse, who was made to him, &c. till the end of the sixth verse, are to be taken as within a parenthesis, which is not unusual in the style of S. Paul. Then he goes on after this long parenthesis. Wi.|
|7 To all that are at Rome, the beloved of God, called to be saints. Grace to you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.||omnibus qui sunt Romæ, dilectis Dei, vocatis sanctis. Gratia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre nostro, et Domino Iesu Christo.||To all that are at Rome . . . called to be saints. That is, who not only are named saints, but who by such a call from God, are to be sanctified by his grace, and to become holy, or saints. Wi.|
|8 First I give thanks to my God, through Jesus Christ, for you all, because your faith is spoken of in the whole world.||Primum quidem gratias ago Deo meo per Iesum Christum pro omnibus vobis: quia fides vestra annunciatur in universo mundo.||In the whole world. That is, to all, or almost all the Roman empire. Wi.|
|9 For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make a commemoration of you;||Testis enim mihi est Deus, cui servio in spiritu meo in Evangelio filii eius, quod sine intermissione memoriam vestri facio||God is my witness. I call God to witness. It is an oath. Wi.|
|10 Always in my prayers making request, if by any means now at length I may have a prosperous journey, by the will of God, to come unto you.||semper in orationibus meis: obsecrans, si quomodo tandem aliquando prosperum iter habeam in voluntate Dei veniendi ad vos.|
|11 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual grace, to strengthen you:||Desidero enim videre vos: ut aliquid impertiar vobis gratiæ spiritualis ad confirmandos vos:|
|12 That is to say, that I may be comforted together in you, by that which is common to us both, your faith and mine.||id est, simul consolari in vobis per eam, quæ invicem est, fidem vestram, atque meam.|
|13 And I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that I have often purposed to come unto you, (and have been hindered hitherto,) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.||Nolo autem vos ignorare fratres: quia sæpe proposui venire ad vos, (et prohibitus sum usque adhuc) ut aliquem fructum habeam et in vobis, sicut et in ceteris gentibus.|
|14 To the Greeks and to the barbarians, to the wise and to the unwise, I am a debtor;||Græcis ac barbaris, sapientibus, et insipientibus debitor sum:||I am a debtor. That is, I am bound to preach the word of God to all. Wi. — By Greeks, in this place, are understood the Romans also, and by Barbarians, all other people who were neither Greeks nor Romans. The Greeks called all barbarians, who did not speak the Greek language, even the Latins themselves. But after the Roman became masters of the world, they were excepted, through policy, from the number of barbarians, and particularly after they began to cultivate the science of the Greeks.
Græcia victa ferum victorem cepit, et artes
Intulit agresti Latio.
— S. Paul says, that he is a debtor both to Greeks and barbarians, to the wise, the philosophers, those who pass for sages amongst the pagans, and to the simple, ignorant, unlettered class of mankind: not that he had received any thing at their hands, but because it was his duty, in quality of apostle, to address himself to the whole world, and preach to the great and to the small, to the learned and the unlearned. Calmet.
|15 So (as much as is in me) I am ready to preach the gospel to you also that are at Rome.||ita (quod in me) promptum est et vobis, qui Romæ estis, evangelizare.||S. Paul was even anxious to go and deliver the word to the Romans. Hence Mat. Polus, in his reflections on this verse, puts the following words into the mouth of the Apostle: Lucifuga non sum: ostendi id Antiochiæ, Athenis, Ephesi et Corinthi: paratus sum & in illa splendidissima urbe Roma ostendere.|
|16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel. For it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth, to the Jew first, and to the Greek.||Non enim erubesco Evangelium. Virtus enim Dei est in salutem omni credenti, Iudæo primum, et Græco.||For it is the power of God unto salvation to every one; that is, it brings powerful helps to all, both Gentiles and Jews, in order to their salvation. — To the Jew first, inasmuch as the gospel is to be first preached to the Jews. Wi. — The promises of salvation were first made to the Jews. Jesus Christ preached to the Jews only, and forbad his disciples, during his life-time, to preach to any other nation. And after his resurrection, when they had full powers to preach every where, they did not turn to the Gentiles, till the Jews had refused to hear them. A miracle was necessary to determine S. Peter to communicate the gospel to the uncircumcised; and S. Paul, in every place, first addressed himself to the Jew, and then to the Gentile. The apostle here sweetly endeavours, in an indirect manner, to silence the presumption of the Romans, who seemed to raise themselves above the Jews, and believed they had merited the grace of vocation to the faith. Calmet.|
|17 For the justice of God is revealed therein, from faith unto faith, as it is written: The just man liveth by faith.||Iustitia enim Dei in eo revelatur ex fide in fidem: sicut scriptum est: Iustus autem ex fide vivit.||For the justice of God. He does not here mean that justice, by which God is just in himself, but that justice, or sanctification, which he communicates to men, and by which they are justified and sanctified. — From faith to faith. That is, by faith, and an increase in faith, inasmuch as, by increasing in faith, we advance in virtues; as it is written, (Hab. ii. 4.) the just man liveth by faith; including the love of God, hope, and other virtues. Wi.|
|18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and injustice of those men that detain the truth of God in injustice:||Revelatur enim ira Dei de cælo super omnem impietatem, et iniustitiam hominum eorum, qui veritatem Dei in iniustitia detinent:||For the wrath of God is revealed, &c. He begins to speak of the heathens, and of the wicked world, whose sins God punisheth from time to time with visible chastisements of plagues, famines, wars, &c. and that because they detain the truth of God in injustice, or in iniquity, that is, because they have not honoured God, even according to the knowledge which he has given them of him, especially their philosophers. Wi.|
|19 Because that which is known of God is manifest in them. For God hath manifested it unto them.||quia quod notum est Dei, manifestum est in illis. Deus enim illis manifestavit.||That which is known of God. Or may be easily known of God, is manifest in them. The light of reason demonstrates to them the existence of one God, the maker and preserver of all things. This is made known to them from the creation of the world, or from the creatures in the world: the Creator may be discovered by the creatures, and as S. Chrys. here says, every Scythian, every barbarian, may come to the knowledge of God by the wonderful harmony  of all things, which proclaims the existence of God louder than any trumpet: but having known him, they did not glorify him; they acted contrary to their knowledge, abandoning themselves to idolatry, and the vain worship of many gods, and to all manner of vices and abominations against the light of reason. Wi.|
|20 For the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made; his eternal power also, and divinity: so that they are inexcusable.||Invisibilia enim ipsius, a creatura mundi, per ea quæ facta sunt, intellecta, conspiciuntur: sempiterna quoque eius virtus, et divinitas: ita ut sint inexcusabiles.|
|21 Because that, when they knew God, they have not glorified him as God, or given thanks; but became vain in their thoughts, and their foolish heart was darkened.||Quia cum cognovissent Deum, non sicut Deum glorificaverunt, aut gratias egerunt: sed evanuerunt in cogitationibus suis, et obscuratum est insipiens cor eorum:|
|22 For professing themselves to be wise, they became fools.||dicentes enim se esse sapientes, stulti facti sunt.|
|23 And they changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of the image of a corruptible man, and of birds, and of fourfooted beasts, and of creeping things.||Et mutaverunt gloriam incorruptibilis Dei in similitudinem imaginis corruptibilis hominis, et volucrum, et quadrupedum, et serpentium.|
|24 Wherefore God gave them up to the desires of their heart, unto uncleanness, to dishonour their own bodies among themselves.||Propter quod tradidit illos Deus in desideria cordis eorum, in immunditiam: ut contumeliis afficiant corpora sua in semetipsis:||Wherefore God gave them  up, &c. That is, as S. Chrys. says, permitted them, in punishment of their wilful blindness, to fall into the foulest, most shameful, and unnatural sins of uncleanness here described. Wi.|
|25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie; and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.||qui commutaverunt veritatem Dei in mendacium: et coluerunt, et servierunt creaturæ potius quam Creatori, qui est benedictus in sæcula. Amen.|
|26 For this cause God delivered them up to shameful affections. For their women have changed the natural use into that use which is against nature.||Propterea tradidit illos Deus in passiones ignominiæ. Nam feminæ eorum immutaverunt naturalem usum in eum usum, qui est contra naturam.||God delivered them up. Not by being author of their sins, but by withdrawing his grace, and so permitting them, in punishment of their pride, to fall into those shameful sins. Ch.|
|27 And, in like manner, the men also, leaving the natural use of the women, have burned in their lusts one towards another, men with men working that which is filthy, and receiving in themselves the recompense which was due to their error.||Similiter autem et masculi, relicto naturali usu feminæ, exarserunt in desideriis suis in invicem, masculi in masculos turpitudinem operantes, et mercedem, quam oportuit, erroris sui in semetipsis recipientes.||Receiving in themselves the recompense . . . due to their error. That is, were justly punished for their wilful blindness and error, by which they had worshipped and adored creatures, instead of the Creator, idols instead of the one true God. Wi.|
|28 And as they liked not to have God in their knowledge, God delivered them up to a reprobate sense, to do those things which are not convenient;||Et sicut non probaverunt Deum habere in notitia: tradidit illos Deus in reprobum sensum: ut faciant ea, quæ non conveniunt,|
|29 Being filled with all iniquity, malice, fornication, avarice, wickedness, full of envy, murder, contention, deceit, malignity, whisperers,||repletos omni iniquitate, malitia, fornicatione, avaritia, nequitia, plenos invidia, homicidio, contentione, dolo, malignitate, susurrones,||Being filled with all iniquity. He passeth to many other sins and crimes of the heathens. Wi.|
|30 Detractors, hateful to God, contumelious, proud, haughty, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,||detractores, Deo odibiles, contumeliosos, superbos, elatos, inventores malorum, parentibus non obedientes,||Hateful  to God. The Greek may also signify, haters of God. Wi. — Θεοστυγεις means either haters of God, or hated by God. Menochius. — Disobedient to parents. The Greek literally signifies, Not listening to the advice of their parents; who rise up against them, and refuse to obey. Calmet.|
|31 Foolish, dissolute, without affection, without fidelity, without mercy.||insipientes, incompositos, sine affectione, absque fœdere, sine misericordia.||Dissolute, rude  in their manners, and behaviour. Some, from the Greek, understand breakers of their word; but this would be the same as without fidelity, which we find afterwards in the same verse. Wi.|
|32 Who, having known the justice of God, did not understand that they who do such things, are worthy of death; and not only they that do them, but they also that consent to them that do them.||Qui cum iustitiam Dei cognovissent, non intellexerunt quoniam qui talia agunt, digni sunt morte: et non solum qui ea faciunt, sed etiam qui consentiunt facientibus.||This passage in the present Greek versions is rather different from the Vulgate: but the text of the Vulgate is conformable to the most ancient Greek manuscripts, of which some are more than twelve hundred years old. Οιτινες το δικαιωμα του θεου επιγνοντες ουκ ενοησαν οτι οι τα τοιαυτα πρασσοντες αξιοι Θανατου εισιν, ου μονον δε οι ποιουντες αυτα, αλλα και οι συνευδοκουντες τοις πρασσουσιν . Vide Var. Lect. Mill. in hunc locum et Prolegom. 41. 42.|
Footnotes: Romans 1
-  V. 1. Vocatus, κλητος Αποστολος. Also v. 6. and 7. κλετοι.
-  V. 4. Qui prædestinatus est. S. Chrys. ομ. α. p. 7. Ed. Sau. τι ουν εστιν ορισϑεντος; δειχθεντος, αποφανθεντος.
-  V. 20. Chrys. hom. ii. p. 20. της παντων αρμονιας σαλπιγγος, λαμπροτερον βοωσης.
-  V. 24. το δε παρεδωκεν, ενταυθα ειασεν εστι.
-  V. 30. Deo odibiles. θεοστυγεις.
-  V. 31. ασυνθετους. See 2 Tim. iii. 3. ασπονδους, sine fœdere.